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Leiden University - Freedom of Ideas

掐指一算,2017年的暑期已经过了三分之一。你是选择在这骄阳似火的夏日里看电视、刷微博,想尽一切办法消磨漫长的时间,还是捡起书本,充分利用这看似短暂的两个月,弥补知识体系上的不足,充实精神生活呢?每年暑假对大多数上班族来说都是难熬的——接受太阳的“炙烤”和雷暴雨的“滋润”是上下班路上的常态,但对于学生和教师来说,暑假则是一年之中难得的可自由支配的时光。于是乎,如何利用好每年的暑假便成了家长们的头疼事儿。每年暑期未至,一些家长就忙着给孩子报名各类补习班,把孩子的暑期生活安排得跟平时上学一样紧凑;还有些家长则另辟蹊径,选择各类夏令营锻炼孩子的生活技能、处事能力。随着出国热的不断升温,孩子们小小年纪便能出国旅行、探索世界,去发达国家拜访著名的高等院校也成为了家长们的首选。美国的哈佛、斯坦福,英国的牛津、剑桥,日本的东大、早稻田,德国的哥廷根、海德堡等如雷贯耳的名校在作为学术引领者的同时,也是其所在地区的精神象征。但说到荷兰,你会想起什么?是风车之国、郁金香王国和堤坝之城阿姆斯特丹?还是梵高笔下优美的自然风光?亦或是海牙国际法庭及荷兰足球队的橙色球衣?鲜为国人所知的是,在尼德兰的土地上,还坐落着一座历史极其悠久的名校——莱顿大学(Universiteit Leiden)。“莱顿大学”这个名字,对于大多数国人来说实在是太陌生了。它在哪儿?是什么时候创建的?它的特色学科是什么?在国际上排名如何?    莱顿大学的历史与传统,说出来还真会把你吓一跳:莱顿大学坐落在荷兰莱顿市,创立于1575年,由八十年战争中的荷兰革命领袖威廉王子创建,是荷兰王国历史最悠久的高等学府。这里孕育了笛卡尔、伦勃朗、斯宾诺莎等影响人类文明进程的学术泰斗与艺术巨匠,还先后诞生了多达16名诺贝尔奖得主(包括洛伦兹、爱因斯坦、费米等),美国总统亚当斯、英国首相丘吉尔、南非总统曼德拉等也都在这里留下过他们求学、任教的足迹。    莱顿大学是有“欧洲常春藤”之称的欧洲研究型大学联盟十二个创立成员之一,也是科英布拉集团、Europaeum等大学联盟的成员。在近十年主要的世界大学排名中,莱顿大学均位列前一百名,部分人文学科的排名更是常年位列欧洲大陆高校之首。    和欧陆众多历史悠久的高校一样,莱顿大学也是一座没有围墙的大学。全校的各院系、行政单位散布在莱顿城的各个角落。整个大学不仅是莱顿城的精神内涵,亦是城市的有机组成部分。在莱顿城游历,漫步在17世纪建成的街道上,时不时就能撞见莱顿大学的学子进出图书馆,开始充实的一天。说到这里,大家是不是已经对这所“低调奢华上档次”的欧洲大学充满向往了呢?下面我们就来观赏微课Leiden University — Freedom of Ideas,来真正领略莱顿大学的精神所在。

“全国运动会”变“全民运动会”

“The 13th Chinese National Games in Tianjin concluded with a bang on Sep. 9th. The quadrennial gala brought the public closer to the mainstream sports and promoted mass fitness.第十三届全国运动会于本月9日在天津完满闭幕。四年一度的全国体育盛事不仅拉近了公众与主流运动的距离,还促进了全民健身的热潮。”During the parade at the closing ceremony, athlete representatives from each delegation sang the national anthem together and then entered the venue.在闭幕式的行列式上,各代表团运动员代表齐唱国歌,随后进入会场。After the torch was put out, marking a successful conclusion of the games, the National Games flag was handed over to Hu Heping, the governor of Shaanxi province, as the next games will be hosted in Xi'an, the provincial capital, in 2021.在象征着运动会正式闭幕的主火炬被熄灭后,全运会会旗移交给了陕西省省长胡和平,下一届全运会将于2021年在陕西省省会西安举办。陕西省省长胡和平接受会旗As a comprehensive national sports meeting of the highest level, The Chinese National Games was inaugurated in 1959, serving as an important occasion for athletes to test their mettle for the Olympic Games. Several pioneering works were applied this year in a bid to stage a more inclusive event.作为我国最高级别的综合性运动会,全运会从1959年开始举办,是运动员参加奥运会之前的一次重要练兵。今年的全运会,则有诸多创举和革新,为赛事的全民参与提供保障。The slogan this year "National Games for a Healthy China" reflects a shift in the nation's focus from the pursuit of gold medals at the Olympic Games and world championships to a more balanced attitude toward the fundamental function of sports in society.本届赛事的宣传口号是“全运惠民 健康中国”,反映了运动会从对奥运金牌和世界冠军的追求转向了对更加均衡和全民参与体育运动的态度。“全运惠民 健康中国”的宣传口号As one major part of the reform, 19 events and games were opened to amateurs, including badminton, marathon running and chess, to include more grassroot athletes in China's top sports meeting.作为改革的重要组成部分,本届全运会有19个项目向业余运动员开放报名,包括羽毛球、马拉松和象棋等,让更多的“草根”运动员参与到中国的顶尖运动会之中。陕西足球获得全运会男子足球城市组冠军Millions of amateur athletes, whose age ranges from 4 to 93, participated in the preliminary rounds of the mass competitions through online and offline platforms, and more than 7,000 reached in the finals.共有数百万名业余运动员通过线上和线下平台报名参加了各项目的预选赛,其中最年轻的只有4岁,最年长的则有93岁,最后有7000多名选手进入决赛进行角逐。In addition to amateur players, the games also opened the door to overseas Chinese and foreigners of Chinese origin. Among the eight overseas players in the equestrian event, Zhu Meimei won an individual bronze medal in show jumping.除了业余选手外,本届全运会还向海外华侨华裔敞开了大门,其中有8名选手报名参加了马术比赛,华裔马术选手朱美美在个人障碍赛中收获一枚铜牌。The games also unprecedentedly allowed grassroots players to compete with professional peers in some events, which broke down the barriers against the involvement of amateur players.第十三届全运会还史无前例地允许民间选手与顶尖职业运动员同场竞技,打破了只有体育代表队才能参赛的界限。The History of National Games全运会的“前世”The forerunner of the National Games of the People's Republic of China was the Chinese National Games, firstly held in 1910 during the reign of Qing Dynasty. The game closed in 1948 and was relaunched under its current name in 1959, following the establishment of the People's Republic of China.中华人民共和国全国运动会的前身是“中华运动会”,第一届于1910年由清政府举办,1948年举办了最后一届。随后在1949年新中国成立后,第一届以崭新面貌示人的全运会于1959年成功举办。

Smiles in Different Cultures

我们常说,生活就像一面镜子,镜子中呈现的是我们自身的影像,当我们微笑时,生活也会对我们微笑。微笑,是一个有魔力的词汇,它是人生最好的名片,亦是世间最好的语言。正是因为这一抹微笑让我们在不经意间传递了人与人之间的善意和礼节,表达了我们内心细微的情感,也展露了人们向往美好的点滴痕迹。但是仔细想来,微笑传递的信息值得我们仔细推敲:在获得肯定与鼓励时,我们会露出笑容;在委婉拒绝别人的请求时,我们也会面带微笑;在试图逃避某事时,我们也会展现出“尴尬”的微笑。微笑的种种,亦是心绪的种种,全部反映在人的脸上。所谓的“看脸不看人”,其实也不尽然,在一个人的举手投足、一颦一笑之间,揣测他/她的心理状态、个性特点乃至道德品质,这之中的学问大有讲究。但微笑,往往是一个不可忽视的重要表征。正如大文豪雨果曾经说的:“有一种东西,比我们的面貌更像我们,那便是我们的表情;还有另外一种东西,比表情更像我们,那便是我们的微笑。”另一方面,微笑虽说是一种自然的表情特征,但是在不同的文化中,差异却非常巨大。中国人虽然比较含蓄内敛,但不会特意掩饰微笑;在法国、美国等国家,微笑更是社交礼仪中的通用表情。而在德国、俄罗斯,微笑却不外显,除了关系紧密的熟人之外,难见微笑的痕迹。微笑在不同国别中的差异,与民族文化、社会风俗等有着不可分割的联系。关于微笑,值得深入讨论的还有很多很多。单单一副传世名画《蒙娜丽莎》,其极富魅力、神秘超然的微笑就已经被全世界各学科的专家们讨论、研究了数百年之久,可见微笑中蕴含了无穷的人类感情。
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练习 | 科学美国人:Climate Change Fires Up Polar Bear Treadmill

科学美国人60秒:Climate Change Fires Up Polar Bear Treadmill气候变化害苦了北极熊燕山大学 刘立军 宋葳 编写 ◆TRANSCRIPTPolar Bears spend most of their time roaming the sea ice in search of seals. And seals spend most of their time underneath that ice, avoiding the top predator. But climate change is giving polar bears additional challenges in their searches for food.“Sea ice is now drifting faster.” George Durner is a research zoologist with the United States Geological Survey Polar Bear Research Program. He and colleagues compared sea ice conditions from 1987-1998 with those from 1999 to 2013.“And what we found was that ice drift at the locations used by polar bears increased 30% in the Beaufort sea and 37% in the Chukchi sea.” That's a problem because polar bears are homebodies - they prefer to stay in a specific range.“Throughout their range, they seem to have a sense of place. And … here we have a situation where the general pattern of ice drift is westward, so to remain in your traditional range, it means you have to constantly be walking eastward to compensate for that westward drift.”The result: a large-scale polar bear treadmill. And all that walking requires extra fuel. On average, a single bear eats between 31 and 33 seals per year. But the metabolic consequence of the treadmill effect means they have to eat on average one to three more. The study is in the journal Global Change Biology.And not only is the ice drifting faster - it's also melting more, giving the bears less of the platform they use to pursue their prey. So they need more seals but have a tougher time tracking them. All of which puts polar bears on a slippery slope.Adapted from https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8590-239221-1.html◆VOCABULARY1. predator n. an animal that kills and eats other animals 捕食性动物。例如:the relationship between predator and prey捕食性动物与猎物之间的关系2. compensate v. [单独使用的动词] compensate (for sth.) to provide sth. good to balance or reduce the bad effects of damage, loss, etc. 补偿;弥补。[同义词] make up for 例如:Nothing can compensate for the loss of a loved one. 失去心爱的人是无法补偿的。3. metabolic adj. 新陈代谢的;代谢作用的 Metabolic means relating to a person's or animal's metabolism.4. metabolism n. [不可数名词, 单数] (biology 生) the chemical processes in living things that change food, etc. into energy and materials for growth 新陈代谢。例如:The body's metabolism is slowed down by extreme cold. 严寒可以使身体新陈代谢的速度下降。5. prey n. an animal, a bird, etc. that is hunted, killed and eaten by another 猎物。例如:The lion will often stalk its prey for hours. 狮子经常悄然跟踪猎物达几个小时。◆QUESTIONS Read the table. Then listen to the news and complete the table.WHATBut [1] _____________________ is giving polar bears additional challenges in their searches for food.WHYREASON 1“[2] ________________ is now drifting faster.” George Durner is a research zoologist with the United States Geological Survey Polar Bear Research Program. He and colleagues compared [3]___________from 1987-1998 with those from 1999 to 2013.REASON 2“And what we found was that [4] _________________ at the locations used by polar bears increased 30% in the Beaufort sea and 37% in the Chukchi sea.” That's a problem because polar bears are homebodies - they prefer to [5] _____________________________.REASON 3“Throughout their range, they seem to have a sense of place. And … here we have a situation where the general pattern of ice drift is westward, so to remain in your traditional range, it means you have to constantly be [6] ______________________________ to compensate for that [7] _______________________.”RESULT A large-scale polar bear [8] ________________. And all that walking requires [9] _____________. On average, a single bear eats between 31 and 33 seals per year. But the metabolic consequence of the treadmill effect means they have to eat on average [10] ________________. The study is in the journal Global Change Biology.And not only is the [11] _____________ - it's also [12] ________________, giving the bears less of the platform they use to [13]__________________. So they need more [14] __________ but have a tougher time tracking them. All of which puts polar bears on [15] _________________________.◆KEY1. climate change2. Sea ice3. sea ice conditions4. ice drift5. stay in a specific range6. walking eastward7. westward drift8. treadmill9. extra fuel10. one to three more11. ice drifting faster12. melting more13. pursue their prey14. seals15. a slippery slope

练习 | FOX新闻:全球新首富

FOX新闻: 全球新首富诞生燕山大学 刘立军 宋葳 编写 ◆TRANSCRIPTMove over Bill Gates, there's a new top dog in town. It's Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon. He's now claimed the title as World's Richest Man with a net worth of over $90 billion. Bezos' narrowly unseating Bill Gates for the top spot, this according to Forbes.Shares of Amazon hitting fresh records and advancing over 40 percent this year, which in turn has propelled Bezos' growth of wealth.Gates had been the reigning king since 2013 until giving up his crown to Bezos.Hilarie Barsky, FOX News.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201707/519501.shtml◆VOCABULARY1. top dog n. [常用单数形式] (informal) a person, group or country that is better than all the others, especially in a situation that involves competition(尤指竞争中的)夺魁者,优胜者2. unseat v. to remove sb. from a position of power 罢免;解除职务;赶下台3. propel v. to move, drive or push sth. forward or in a particular direction 推动;驱动;推进。例如:He succeeded in propelling the ball across the line. 他成功地把球带过线。◆QUESTIONS Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the words you hear.Move over Bill Gates, there's a new top dog in town. It's Jeff Bezos, [1] _______________________ of Amazon. He's now claimed the [2] ____________ as World's Richest Man with a net worth of [3] _____________________. Bezos' [4] _________________ unseating Bill Gates for the top spot, this according to Forbes.[5] _____________ of Amazon hitting [6] ___________________ and advancing [7] ____________ this year, which in turn has propelled Bezos' growth of [8] __________________.Gates had been the reigning king [9] ___________________ until giving up his [10] __________ to Bezos.◆KEY1. founder and CEO 2. title 3. over $90 billion4. narrowly 5. Shares 6. fresh records 7. over 40 percent 8. wealth9. since 2013 10. crown

练习 | CRI News: China to Expand Media Relations with Africa Senior Official

CRI News 60秒:China to expand media relations with Africa: senior official中国与非洲扩展媒体联系 燕山大学 刘立军 宋葳 编写 ◆TRANSCRIPTThe Chinese and African media organizations have agreed to increase cooperation in information sharing, best practices and training to improve the dissemination of information about Sino-Africa ties.Guo Weimin, deputy director of the State Council Information Office, says Chinese and African media need to deepen cooperation and exchanges."We must continue to deepen mutual trust. The Chinese and the African media should report truthfully about the Sino-Africa relations. The Chinese and African media should walk hand in hand and strengthen reporting in international affairs and make our voices heard on issues of fairness and rationality," said GuoGuo Weimin is also calling on Chinese and African media organizations to forge new areas of media cooperation.Kevin Ritchie, regional executive editor of South Africa's Independent Media, echoes this statement."As media from China and South Africa, we can use this opportunity to forge bonds, to learn from one another, to discuss the shortcomings we might have and find solutions to problems that are actually common to both of us," said Ritchie.Ritchie suggests media organizations within BRICS are duty bound to place stories about the bloc on their agenda.The China-Africa Media Forum was hosted by the State Council Information Office of China, and has co-organized by China's Xinhua News Agency and South Africa's Independent Media.Adapted from https://www.chinavoa.com/show-8631-239239-1.html◆VOCABULARY1. disseminate v. [动词 + 名词短语] (formal) to spread information, knowledge, etc. so that it reaches many people 散布,传播(信息、知识等)。例如:Their findings have been widely disseminated. 他们的研究成果已经广为传播。2. forge v. [动词 + 名词短语] to put a lot of effort into making sth. successful or strong so that it will last 艰苦干成;努力加强。例如:○a move to forge new links between management and workers努力建立劳资新关系的措施○Strategic alliances are being forged with major European companies. 正与欧洲主要公司设法结成战略同盟。○She forged a new career in the music business. 她在乐坛上另创一番新事业。3. rational adj. (of behaviour, ideas, etc. 行为、思想等) based on reason rather than emotions 合理的;理性的;明智的。例如:○a rational argument/choice/decision合理的论点 / 选择 / 决定○rational analysis/thought有道理的分析 / 思考○There is no rational explanation for his actions. 对他的所作所为无法作出合理的解释。◆QUESTIONS Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the words you hear.The Chinese and African media organizations have agreed to [1] _________________________ in information sharing, best practices and training to improve the dissemination of information about Sino-Africa ties.Guo Weimin, deputy director of the State Council Information Office, says Chinese and African media need to [2] _______________________________________."We must continue to [3] ____________________________. The Chinese and the African media should report truthfully about the Sino-Africa relations. The Chinese and African media should walk hand in hand and strengthen reporting in [4] _____________________ and make our voices heard on issues of [5] ___________________________," said Guo.Guo Weimin is also calling on Chinese and African media organizations to [6] _______________________________________________.Kevin Ritchie, [7] ______________________________________ of South Africa's Independent Media, echoes this statement."As media from China and South Africa, we can use this opportunity to forge bonds, to learn from one another, to discuss the [8] __________________________ we might have and find [9] ___________________ to problems that are actually common to both of us," said Ritchie.Ritchie suggests media organizations within BRICS are duty bound to place stories about the bloc on their [10] ___________________________.The China-Africa Media Forum was hosted by the State Council Information Office of China, and has co-organized by China's Xinhua News Agency and South Africa's Independent Media.◆KEY1. increase cooperation 2. deepen cooperation and exchanges3. deepen mutual trust 4. international affairs 5. fairness and rationality6. forge new areas of media cooperation7. regional executive editor 8. shortcomings 9. solutions 10. agenda