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《唐顿庄园》大电影即将回归,英剧迷看过来!

Fans of Downton Abbey can breathe a sign of relief — a film of the hugely successful TV series has finally been confirmed after much speculation. Michelle Dockery (Lady Mary) shared the first behind-the-scenes photo to social media from the set of the British historical period drama Downton Abbey as filming on the project has officially started.《唐顿庄园》的剧迷们终于等来了好消息!在终结数年后,这部大热的英剧终于开拍电影版了。扮演玛丽小姐的米歇尔·道克瑞近日在社交媒体上分享了一张幕后照片,证实了这部红极一时的英国古装剧的电影版已经正式开拍。The critically acclaimed show's main cast are set to return for the feature including award winning actress Dame Maggie Smith, Hugh Bonneville, Laura Carmichael, Michelle Dockery and Elizabeth McGovern. Also returning from the series is its creator Academy-Award winner Julian Fellowes who wrote the film’s screenplay.原剧中饱受好评的剧组成员这次也将悉数回归——包括获奖无数的老戏骨玛吉·史密斯,休·博内威利,劳拉·卡尔迈克尔,玛丽大小姐米歇尔·道克瑞,和伊丽莎白·麦戈文等。同时回归的还有剧集的原创——曾获小金人的编剧朱利安·费罗斯,本次的电影版也将由他再次操刀剧本。The period TV drama, which was a hit around the world, ended at Christmas 2015 after six series. Downton Abbey followed the lives of the Crawley family and the servants who worked for them at the turn of the 20th century in an Edwardian English country home.曾经席卷全球电视荧屏的《唐顿庄园》在播出六季后,于2015年的圣诞节宣告终结。剧集主要讲述了20世纪初,居住在一座爱德华时期乡村庄园内克劳利一家和仆人们的生活故事。Over its 6 seasons, the series garnered 3 Golden Globe Awards, 15 Primetime Emmy Awards, a Special BAFTA award and 69 Emmy nominations in total, making Downton Abbey the most nominated non-US television show in the history of the Emmys – even earning a Guinness World Record for the highest critically rated TV show along the way.6季的剧集总共收获了三项金球大奖,15座黄金时段艾美奖,一座英国电影电视艺术学院特别贡献奖,以及多达69项的艾美奖提名,使得《唐顿庄园》成为艾美奖史上提名最多的外国电视剧。《唐顿庄园》的火爆程度甚至为其获得了一项吉尼斯世界纪录——“全球最受好评的电视剧”。《唐顿庄园》的文化影响Downton Abbey has been credited with spawning a massive worldwide increase in demand for professionally trained butlers, especially British butlers, notably in China, Russia, and the Middle East. Between 2010 and 2012, demand was thought to have doubled, leading to some butlers fetching salaries as high as £150,000.《唐顿庄园》的走红曾在当时掀起了一阵不小的“全球管家热”。在中国、俄罗斯和中东等地,经过专业训练的英国管家在富人圈中走俏。2010年至2012年间,英国管家的需求经历了翻倍增长,部分管家的年薪甚至会高达15万英镑。Some of the fashion items worn by characters on the show have seen a strong revival of interest in the UK during the show's run, including starched collars, midi skirts, and beaded gowns.在剧集播出期间,英国掀起了一阵有关剧中服饰的复古热潮。上浆领,迷笛裙,串珠礼服等纷纷走红。VOCABULARYspeculation: n. 猜测garner: v. 获得spawn: v. 引起starched: adj. 上过浆的

Bamboo-Structured Language vs Tree-Structured Language

竹与树,放在自然界是再普通不过的事物,可你是否想过,它们与语言学也能扯上关系?在语言学中,中英两种语言常借“竹形语言”和“树形语言”加以比较,那么为什么它们会被冠以竹树之分,这之中又有什么意义和来头呢?先来看看竹子和树木之间有什么区别:竹子挺拔修长,四季青翠,傲雪凌霜,最显著的特点就是“节状”结构,一节节往上堆叠生长,观感整齐。树木,尤指乔木,有着高大的树干,与之相连的树冠则呈现多级分叉的树枝,树枝之上长有叶片,通过光合作用为全树提供源源不断的能量。由此看来,竹与树之间的结构有着显著且本质的差异:竹子始终一贯,逐级而上,树木则是从属分明,有主有副。语言学家发现,中文的句法结构类似竹子,成分与成分之间相对独立,有时可以互换,通过语义相连;英文的句法结构则形似树木,句子成分通过从属等级进行划分,如同一棵大树一样,呈现树形结构。 看个例子,在古典名著《红楼梦》中,有这样一段文字:“晴雯先接出来,笑道:‘好啊,叫我研了墨,早起高兴,只写了三个字,扔下笔就走了,哄我等了这一天,快来给我写完了这些墨才算呢!’”不难发现,寥寥数笔却有十几个动词,句子看似杂乱,读起来却有轻盈灵动之感,这种竹形结构体现出了中文特有的爽快利落,但意味深远的特色。再看英文中的树形结构,选文来自狄更斯的《雾都孤儿》:“Among other public buildings in a certain town, which for many reasons it will be prudent to refrain from mentioning, and to which I will assign no fictitious name, there is one anciently common to most towns, great or small: to wit, a workhouse; and in this workhouse was born; on a day…”这才节选了第一句话的一半,可是句中已经勾勒了复杂的从属关系:在某个小镇中的建筑中、种种原因还是不说为好、“我”连假名也不取一个、和大多数小镇一样,无论大大小小…英语通过丰富的介词、短语和从句结构,将词汇编织成精美的信息网,分析一下便可发现,从属分明,将成分分解,便能呈现出树形的结构。接下来,我们就来继续探究中英文竹形结构和树形结构的差异,从而扩展到中英翻译中的知识要点,敬请收看本期微课Bamboo-Structured Language vs Tree-Structured Language。

故宫博物院

The Palace Museum in Beijing, or the Forbidden City, has received more than 100 million visitors since January 2012, according to the museum.首都北京的故宫博物院,也就是我们所熟知的紫禁城,据馆方的消息说,自2012年1月以来已经突破了1亿的累计客流。To avoid overcrowding during peak season, the museum has allowed a maximum of 80,000 visitors per day since June 2015, compared with more than 100,000 or even 180,000 visitors per day previously.为了避免在旅游旺季出现人挤人的情形,博物院自2015年6月起开始实行每天限流8万人的政策。而在政策实施前,故宫动辄就会出现超10万甚至18万的日客流。Controlling visitor numbers is aimed at protecting both the cultural relics and visitors. The museum will further improve its management and conduct a pilot scheme of selling different amounts of tickets at different periods during the day in 2019.实施限流不仅是为了保护文物,同时也是为了保障游客的人身安全。博物院还将在2019年加强管理,试行分时段售票政策。As a renowned world cultural heritage site and home to priceless art works and artefacts, the Palace Museum is a must-see for tourists and saw a record high of 16.7 million visitors in 2017.作为世界著名的文化遗产,故宫拥有无数的艺术珍宝和历史遗存,是来京游客的必到景点,曾在2017年创下1670万人的最高年客流记录。Meanwhile, the Palace Museum has been making every effort to repair the palace complex with a view to open more sections to the public. Back to 2015, when the Forbidden City celebrated its 90th anniversary, four new sections were unveiled, including the palace that housed the emperor's mother, making 65 percent of the complex accessible to the public. It is estimated that before 2020, more than 85% of the whole area will be ready to open to the public.与此同时,故宫博物院一直在不遗余力地修缮、开放新区域。在2015年,为了迎接故宫90周年院庆,四大未曾开放的区域整修后亮相世人,其中包括了慈禧的寝宫,使得整个故宫开放的区域达到了65%。此外官方预计在2020年前,故宫的开放区域能扩大到85%。Located in the heart of Beijing, the Palace Museum was home to emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties. After the revolution of 1911, which ended the reign of the Qing Dynasty, the last emperor, Puyi, didn’t leave the palace until 1924, when he was expelled.位于北京中心位置的故宫博物院曾经是明清两朝的皇宫。1911年辛亥革命推翻了清王朝后,末代皇帝溥仪仍居留在此,直至1924年被逐出皇宫。Over the following years, many treasures were lost due to social unrest. Lacking of proper maintenance further exacerbated the worsening condition of the old palace. In the next several decades, the museum has been taking great efforts to renovate and recover the huge complex. It is a year-long and difficult project to restore more than 9,000 rooms taking 72 hectares.接踵而至的社会动荡让故宫的文物大量流失,日常维护的缺失更使得故宫的状况日益恶化。随后的几十年中,馆方耗费了大量的精力对这一庞大的皇宫进行修缮,但修复这片占地72公顷,拥有9000多间房间的建筑群仍是一项漫长而艰难的工程。Nowadays, the Palace Museum faces new problems such as protection and large number of visitors. Since January 2014, the museum has been closed to public every Monday for renovation and maintenance work. Visitors are suggested to book tickets online in advance.如今,故宫博物院除了修缮外,还面临着高客流量和随之带来的安全问题。自2014年1月起,故宫每周一闭馆,进行集中修缮和维护。游客也被建议提前在网上购票。VOCABULARYpilot scheme: 试点方案artefact:n. 制品,人工产物exacerbate:v. 恶化;加重
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练习 | 特雷莎·梅在73届联大谈女孩教育问题

特雷莎·梅在73届联大谈女孩教育问题燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTPrime Minister Theresa May’s Speech about Girls’ Education at UNGA25 September 2018Thank you. Thank you very much, indeed. And I’m delighted to be here. And first of all, can I say thank you to President Macron and…and Prime Minister Trudeau - Emmanuel and Justin - and also thank you to the governments of Kenya, Niger and Jordan as co-hosts of this event with whom we are working to support girls’ education around the world.Today, over 130 million girls did not go to school. 130 million girls - most of them in the world’s poorest countries - did not have the opportunity to learn and develop the skills that most of us in this room take for granted. 130 million girls did not receive an education, without which their unique and almost unlimited potential will never be unlocked.By denying girls an education, we deny them a voice, we deny them choice, we deny them their future.Now, I know I am extraordinarily grateful for the choices the education I had gave me. Growing up I was blessed with good schools, a supportive learning environment, encouragement from my teachers and from my parents. And I have always said: “Education is the key that unlocks the door to your future.” I want all girls around the world to be able to unlock that door.Over the next decade, millions of young girls will enter the jobs market. As they do so, they have the potential not just to lift themselves, their families and their countries out of poverty, but also to grow the global economy, create new markets and find solutions to shared challenges that we all face. Yet without education, that incredible potential will not be realized - and all our futures will be all the poorer for it.So, improving access to education is not only the right thing to do, it is also at the heart of the UK’s drive to boost economic growth, improve stability and reduce conflict around the world. A more educated world is a better world for all of us, and the UK has long led the way in making it easier for girls around the globe to access 12 years of quality education.Since 2015, we’ve helped at least 5.6 million girls in developing countries gain a decent education, and this commitment will continue. Earlier this year, I pledged almost £400 million of UK Aid for the second phase of our Girls’ Education Challenge. This is a programme that is already supporting 1 million girls around the world to continue their education through primary, secondary school and training. And it is also giving girls who have dropped out or never attended school due to poverty, motherhood, disability or conflict a chance to learn through catch-up classes and vital skills training.And phase two of the Challenge will see new projects that specifically target the most vulnerable and marginalised girls, including those with disabilities. And I’m pleased to announce today nine such projects, which will support more than 170,000 of the world’s most marginalised girls. This includes in Ethiopia, where we will fund counselling and mentoring to help girls enrol and stay in school, and teacher training to help improve the quality of education. And that project will help over 70,000 girls access education, including up to 3,500 girls with disabilities.And elsewhere, we will be funding projects that help girls affected by war - who are more than twice as likely to be out of school compared to those not living in conflict zones.And while our work is making an immeasurable difference to the lives of those it helps, to make sure no girls are left behind requires truly global co-ordinated action. Nations, donors, multinationals and other organisations working together to secure real and lasting change.So we’ve launched a global campaign and we are pushing for commitments to girls’ education from governments around the world. And we received many such commitments at April’s Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, at which leaders including Justin pledged to ensure that all girls and boys across the Commonwealth will be able to access 12 years of quality education and learning by 2030.Today, I am calling on everyone here to join our campaign. [To] Commit to the individual, collective and governmental action that’s needed to break down barriers to girls’ education. To increase girls’ access to schools and learning. To ensure that every girl, in every corner of the world, can access the 12 years of education they need to unleash their potential, embrace the opportunities before them, and help change the world for the better.Adapted from https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/u1fP8ELTCkFZ83i5m9mS_QVOCABULARY1.potential n. [不可数名词] qualities that exist and can be developed 潜力;潜。例如:All children should be encouraged to realize their full potential. 应当鼓励所有的儿童充分发挥他们的潜能。She has great potential as an artist. 她很有潜质,是一位可造就的艺术家。He has the potential to become a world-class musician. 他有潜力成为世界级的音乐家。The house has a lot of potential. 这所房子颇具潜力。2.be blessed with sth. /sb.: to have sth. good such as ability, great happiness, etc. 赋有(能力等);享有(幸福等)。例如:She's blessed with excellent health. 她身体很好,是一种福气。We're blessed with five lovely grandchildren. 我们很有福气,有五个可爱的孙子孙女。3. catch-up n. [不可数名词] the act of trying to reach the same level or standard as sb. who is ahead of you (向别人水平的)追赶。例如:It was a month of catch-up for them. 他们那个月急起直追。4. vulnable adj. (地方)易受攻击的5. multinational n. a company that operates in several different countries, especially a large and powerful company 跨国公司6. unleash v. [动词 + 名词短语] unleash sth. (on/upon sb./sth.) to suddenly let a strong force, emotion, etc. be felt or have an effect 发泄;突然释放;使爆发。例如:The government's proposals unleashed a storm of protest in the press. 政府的提案引发了新闻界的抗议浪潮。7. embrace v. (formal) to put your arms around sb. as a sign of love or friendship 抱;拥抱。[单独使用的动词] They embraced and promised to keep in touch. 他们互相拥抱,许诺将保持联系。[动词 + 名词短语] She embraced her son warmly. 她热情地拥抱儿子。QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Thank you. Thank you very much, indeed. And I’m (Q1) _____________________ to be here. And (Q2)________________________, can I say thank you to President Macron and…and Prime Minister Trudeau - Emmanuel and Justin - and (Q3) _____________________ thank you to the governments of Kenya, Niger and Jordan as co-hosts of this event with whom we are working to support girls’ education around the world.Today, over 130 million girls did not go to school. 130 million girls - most of them in the world’s poorest countries - did not have the opportunity to learn and develop the skills that most of us in this room (Q4) _________________________. 130 million girls did not (Q5) ______________________, without which their unique and almost unlimited potential will never be unlocked.By denying girls an education, we deny them a (Q6) ___________, we deny them (Q7)________, we deny them their (Q8)__________________.Now, I know I am extraordinarily grateful for the choices the education I had gave me. Growing up I (Q9)__________________________ good schools, a supportive learning environment, encouragement from my teachers and from my parents. And I have always said: “Education is the key that (Q10)____________________ the door to your future.” I want all girls around the world to be able to unlock that door.(Q11) __________________, millions of young girls will enter the jobs market. As they do so, they have the potential not just to lift themselves, their families and their countries (Q12)____________, but also to grow the global economy, create new markets and find solutions to shared challenges that we all face. Yet without education, that (Q13)____________________ potential will not be realized - and all our futures will be all the poorer for it.So, improving access to education is not only the right thing to do, it is also at the heart of the UK’s drive to (Q14)_____________________, improve stability and (Q15)___________________ around the world. A more educated world is a better world for all of us, and the UK has long led the way in making it easier for girls around the globe to access 12 years of (Q16)_________________.Since 2015, we’ve helped at least 5.6 million girls in developing countries gain a (Q17)______________________, and this commitment will continue. Earlier this year, I pledged almost £400 million of UK Aid for the second phase of our Girls’ Education Challenge. This is a programme that is already supporting 1 million girls around the world to (Q18)____________________________________ through primary, secondary school and training. And it is also giving girls who have dropped out or never attended school (Q19)_____________________, motherhood, disability or conflict a chance to learn through catch-up classes and vital skills training.And phase two of the Challenge will see new projects that specifically target the most vulnerable and marginalised girls, including those with (Q20)____________________. And I’m pleased to announce today nine such projects, which will support more than 170,000 of the world’s most marginalised girls. This includes in Ethiopia, where we will fund counselling and mentoring to help girls (Q21)______________________________, and teacher training to help improve the quality of education. And that project will help over 70,000 girls access education, including up to 3,500 girls with disabilities.And (Q22)__________________, we will be funding projects that help girls affected by war - who are more than twice as likely to be out of school compared to (Q23)_______________ not living in conflict zones.And while our work is making an immeasurable difference to the lives of those it helps, to make sure no girls are left behind requires truly global co-ordinated action. Nations, donors, multinationals and other organisations working together to secure (Q24)_________________________ change.So we’ve launched a global campaign and we are pushing for commitments to girls’ education from (Q25)_____________________________ around the world. And we received many such commitments at April’s Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, at which leaders including Justin pledged to ensure that all girls and boys across the Commonwealth will be able to access 12 years of (Q26)______________________________ by 2030.Today, I am calling on everyone here to join our campaign. (To) Commit to the individual, collective and governmental action that’s needed to (Q27)_________________ barriers to girls’ education. To increase girls’ access to schools and learning. To ensure that every girl, in (Q28)______________________________________, can access the 12 years of education they need to (Q29)__________________________________, embrace the opportunities before them, and help change the world (Q30)__________________________.KEY Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Thank you. Thank you very much, indeed. And I’m (Q1)delighted to be here. And (Q2)first of all, can I say thank you to President Macron and…and Prime Minister Trudeau - Emmanuel and Justin - and (Q3)also thank you to the governments of Kenya, Niger and Jordan as co-hosts of this event with whom we are working to support girls’ education around the world.Today, over 130 million girls did not go to school. 130 million girls - most of them in the world’s poorest countries - did not have the opportunity to learn and develop the skills that most of us in this room (Q4)take for granted. 130 million girls did not (Q5)receive an education, without which their unique and almost unlimited potential will never be unlocked.By denying girls an education, we deny them a (Q6)voice, we deny them (Q7)choice, we deny them their (Q8)future.Now, I know I am extraordinarily grateful for the choices the education I had gave me. Growing up I (Q9)was blessed with good schools, a supportive learning environment, encouragement from my teachers and from my parents. And I have always said: “Education is the key that (Q10)unlocks the door to your future.” I want all girls around the world to be able to unlock that door.(Q11)Over the next decade, millions of young girls will enter the jobs market. As they do so, they have the potential not just to lift themselves, their families and their countries (Q12)out of poverty, but also to grow the global economy, create new markets and find solutions to shared challenges that we all face. Yet without education, that (Q13)incredible potential will not be realized - and all our futures will be all the poorer for it.So, improving access to education is not only the right thing to do, it is also at the heart of the UK’s drive to (Q14)boost economic growth, improve stability and (Q15)reduce conflict around the world. A more educated world is a better world for all of us, and the UK has long led the way in making it easier for girls around the globe to access 12 years of (Q16)quality education.Since 2015, we’ve helped at least 5.6 million girls in developing countries gain a (Q17)decent education, and this commitment will continue. Earlier this year, I pledged almost £400 million of UK Aid for the second phase of our Girls’ Education Challenge. This is a programme that is already supporting 1 million girls around the world to (Q18)continue their education through primary, secondary school and training. And it is also giving girls who have dropped out or never attended school (Q19)due to poverty, motherhood, disability or conflict a chance to learn through catch-up classes and vital skills training.And phase two of the Challenge will see new projects that specifically target the most vulnerable and marginalised girls, including those with (Q20)disabilities. And I’m pleased to announce today nine such projects, which will support more than 170,000 of the world’s most marginalised girls. This includes in Ethiopia, where we will fund counselling and mentoring to help girls (Q21)enrol and stay in school, and teacher training to help improve the quality of education. And that project will help over 70,000 girls access education, including up to 3,500 girls with disabilities.And (Q22)elsewhere, we will be funding projects that help girls affected by war - who are more than twice as likely to be out of school compared to (Q23)those not living in conflict zones.And while our work is making an immeasurable difference to the lives of those it helps, to make sure no girls are left behind requires truly global co-ordinated action. Nations, donors, multinationals and other organisations working together to secure (Q24)real and lasting change.So we’ve launched a global campaign and we are pushing for commitments to girls’ education from (Q25)governments around the world. And we received many such commitments at April’s Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, at which leaders including Justin pledged to ensure that all girls and boys across the Commonwealth will be able to access 12 years of (Q26)quality education and learning by 2030.Today, I am calling on everyone here to join our campaign. [To] Commit to the individual, collective and governmental action that’s needed to (Q27)break down barriers to girls’ education. To increase girls’ access to schools and learning. To ensure that every girl, in (Q28)every corner of the world, can access the 12 years of education they need to (Q29)unleash their potential, embrace the opportunities before them, and help change the world (Q30)for the better.

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:蚊子能识别危险气味

科学美国人60秒:蚊子能识别危险气味燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for particular species or even certain individuals. At the same time, their tastes can change, depending on the circumstances. One species of skeeter in California, for example, has a fondness in summer for robins, but will settle for mammals once the birds head south for the winter.But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by nose - and by their intended victim's behavior. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the scent of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid individuals who try to swat them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.Researchers took female mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a human volunteer. The other contained a control solution of mineral oil. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed an obvious preference for eu d' Homo sapiens.Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to flee from the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to human odor with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their appetite for the previously attractive scent.That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in learning and memory in other insects.So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to avoid danger.Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for curbing the spread of diseases carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are slow learners (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat.Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201808/560139.shtmlVOCABULARY1. skeeter n. (North Amercian English, informal, humorous) = mosquito 蚊子2. robin n. a grey American bird with a red breast, larger than a European robin 旅鸫,美洲知更鸟(毛灰色,胸部红色,比欧亚鸲大)3. mammal n. any animal that gives birth to live babies, not eggs, and feeds its young on milk. Cows, humans and whales are all mammals. 哺乳动物4. olfactory adj. [只用于名词前] (technical 术语) connected with the sense of smell 嗅觉的。例如:olfactory cells / nerves / organs嗅觉细胞 / 神经 / 器官5. swat v. [动词 + 名词短语] to hit sth., especially an insect, using your hand or a flat object 拍,打(昆虫等)6. maze n. a system of paths separated by walls or hedges built in a park or garden, that is designed so that it is difficult to find your way through 迷宫。例如:We got lost in the maze. 我们在迷宫里迷失了方向。7. suffuse v. [动词 + 名词短语][常用被动态] suffuse sb./sth. (with sth.) (literary) (especially of a colour, light or feeling 尤指颜色、光线或感情) to spread all over or through sb. / sth. 布满;弥漫于;充满。例如:Her face was suffused with colour. 她满脸通红。8. aroma n. a pleasant, noticeable smell 芳香;香味。例如:the aroma of fresh coffee新鲜咖啡的香味9. akin to sth.: (formal) similar to 相似的;类似的。例如:What he felt was more akin to pity than love. 他感受到的更像怜悯,而不是爱。10. maneuver n. 策略11. neurotransmitter n. (biology 生) a chemical that carries messages from nerve cells to other nerve cells or muscles 神经递质(在神经细胞间或向肌肉传递信息)12. dopamine n. [不可数名词] a chemical produced by nerve cells which has an effect on other cells 多巴胺(神经细胞产生的一种作用于其他细胞的化学物质)13. molecular adj. 分子的14. curb v. [动词 + 名词短语] to control or limit sth., especially sth. bad 控制,抑制,限定,约束(不好的事物)。例如:He needs to learn to curb his temper. 他得学着控制自己的脾气。A range of policies have been introduced aimed at curbing inflation. 为了抑制通货膨胀实施了一系列的政策。15. dengue n. [不可数名词] a disease caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes , that is found in tropical areas and causes fever and severe pain in the joints 登革热(由蚊子传播的热带疾病,症状为发烧和关节剧痛)QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.1. When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for (Q1) ____________________________ or even (Q2) _____________________. At the same time, their (Q3) ______________ can change, depending on the (Q4) __________________.2. But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by (Q5) ____________ - and by (Q6) __________________________. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the (Q7) ___________ of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid (Q8) ________ who try to (Q9) ______ them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.3. Researchers took (Q10) ______________ mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a (Q11) _____________________ volunteer. The other contained a control solution of (Q12) _____________________. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed (Q13) ____________________ for eu d' Homo sapiens.4. Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to (Q14) _______________ the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to (Q15) _________________ with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their (Q16) ________________ for the previously attractive scent.5. That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in (Q17) __________________________ in other insects.6. So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to (Q18) ___________________________.7. Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for (Q19) __________________________________ carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are (Q20) ____________________ (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat. KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.1. When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for (Q1) particular species or even (Q2) certain individuals. At the same time, their (Q3) tastes can change, depending on the (Q4) circumstances.2. But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by (Q5) nose - and by (Q6) their intended victim's behavior. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the (Q7) scent of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid (Q8) individuals who try to (Q9) swat them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.3. Researchers took (Q10) female mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a (Q11) human volunteer. The other contained a control solution of (Q12) mineral oil. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed (Q13) an obvious preference for eu d' Homo sapiens.4. Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to (Q14) flee from the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to (Q15) human odor with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their (Q16) appetite for the previously attractive scent.5. That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in (Q17) learning and memory in other insects.6. So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to (Q18) avoid danger.7. Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for (Q19) curbing the spread of diseases carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are (Q20) slow learners (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat.

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:互联网亟待创新

科学美国人60秒:互联网亟待创新燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Steve Mirsky."So, the internet is really a network of networks that underlies critically so many things in our lives. But really 50 years ago it was an experiment that escaped from the lab. And it wasn't really designed to be the global communications infrastructure it is today."Jennifer Rexford, a computer scientist at Princeton University specializing in computer networks. She spoke to Scientific American Editor in Chief Mariette DiChristina at the recent World Economic Forum in Davos."So, it really planted the seeds of tremendous innovation around the periphery of the internet and the devices we connect to it and the applications we run over it. But ironically it didn't plant the seeds of its own innovation. And we suffer from that every day, from the fact that we have denial-of-service attacks taking down websites, we have performance problems, Netflix streams grinding to a halt and so on.""In my work on self-driving networks we're bringing together two really exciting technologies: machine learning that's transforming everything, by taking raw data into true situational awareness. And the second is programmable network switches that bring the same idea of enabling and lowering the barrier to innovation that we have at the outside of the internet to its basic underpinnings. So that we can learn how to sense and actuate better over time, so that the network can learn to detect performance problems and route around them. To detect denial-of-service attacks and block them before they do significant harm. So, the marriage of these two technologies is really happening now, and it's a great opportunity to build an internet that actually is worthy of the trust that we increasingly place in it today."For Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201810/565511.shtml VOCABULARY1. periphery n. the outer edge of a particular area 边缘;周围;外围。例如: industrial development on the periphery of the town城镇周边地区工业的发展 The condition makes it difficult for patients to see objects at the periphery of their vision. 这种病症使患者难于看见视觉边缘的物体。2. grinding adj. [只用于名词前] (of a difficult situation 困难的形势) that never ends or improves 没完没了的;无休止的;无改进的。例如:grinding poverty贫困不堪3. halt n. [单数] an act of stopping the movement or progress of sb./sth. 停止;阻止;暂停。例如:Work came to a halt when the machine broke down. 机器一坏,工作便停了下来。4. underpinning n. 基础结构5. underpin v. (formal) to support or form the basis of an argument, a claim, etc. 加强,巩固,构成(…的基础等)。例如:The report is underpinned by extensive research. 这份报告以广泛的研究为基础。 QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (ü) or false (û) statements. 1. The internet is really a network of our society that underlies critically so many things in our lives. 2. But 50 years ago, it was really an experiment that escaped from the lab. 3. And it was designed to be the global communications infrastructure it is today. 4. Jennifer Rexford is a computer scientist at Harvard University specializing in computer networks. 5. So, the internet really planted the seeds of tremendous innovation around the periphery of the internet and the devices we connect to it and the applications we run over it. 6. But ironically the internet didn't plant the seeds of its own innovation. 7. In my work on self-driving networks, we're bringing machine learning and programmable network switches together. 8. Machine learning is to transform everything by taking raw data into true situational awareness. 9. Programmable network switches bring the same idea of enabling and lowering the barrier to innovation that we have at the outside of the internet to its basic underpinnings. 10. However, the marriage of these two technologies isn’t really happening now, and it's a great opportunity to build an internet that actually is worthy of the trust that we increasingly place in it today. KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (ü) or false (û) statements.û 1. The internet is really a network of our society that underlies critically so many things in our lives. [正确表达] The internet is really a network of networks that underlies critically so many things in our lives.ü 2. But 50 years ago, it was really an experiment that escaped from the lab. 为原文But really 50 years ago it was an experiment that escaped from the lab. 的同意表达。û 3. And it was designed to be the global communications infrastructure it is today. [正确表达] And it wasn't really designed to be the global communications infrastructure it is today.û 4. Jennifer Rexford is a computer scientist at Harvard University specializing in computer networks. [正确表达] Jennifer Rexford, a computer scientist at Princeton University specializing in computer networks.û 5. So, the internet really planted the seeds of tremendous innovation around the periphery of the internet and the devices we connect to it and the applications we run over it.ü 6. But ironically the internet didn't plant the seeds of its own innovation.ü 7. In my work on self-driving networks, we're bringing machine learning and programmable network switches together.ü 8. Machine learning is to transform everything by taking raw data into true situational awareness.ü 9. Programmable network switches bring the same idea of enabling and lowering the barrier to innovation that we have at the outside of the internet to its basic underpinnings.û 10. However, the marriage of these two technologies isn’t really happening now, and it's a great opportunity to build an internet that actually is worthy of the trust that we increasingly place in it today. [正确表达] So, the marriage of these two technologies is really happening now, and it's a great opportunity to build an internet that actually is worthy of the trust that we increasingly place in it today.