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Types of data and basic data collection methods

●●●伴随着IT行业的风起云涌和信息技术的迅速发展,O2O、互联网+、区块链等新概念便不断刷新着我们的认知。前一秒 “大数据时代”的概念才刚刚闯进我们的生活,下一秒就又会有某样新事物腾空出世,一夜间成为全球瞩目的行业焦点。在信息时代,与实体交通工具同样重要的,是一根根网线以及太空中散布着的无线信号。有了它们,便能实现信息资源的实时共享。尽管信息技术日新月异,但它也有“不变”——尽管信息载体和传输形式千变万化,但其本质不曾改变:数据。“数据”这个词,无论是中文形式还是英文形式(data),都让人觉得遥远。但事实上,数据不仅仅是数字,而是所有可以用文字、图表等不同载体传达信息的内容。单个的数据可能并无多大意义,但一连串的数据则可传递有效的信息。它可以是一段动听的音乐,也可以是一本书。我们作为个体也能参与数据的采集与整合过程——大数据便是从我们的行为习惯、搜索内容等信息源中集合而来的。当今,各行各业都离不开数据。抛开“大红大紫”的大数据不说,企业开展业务、发展客户都需要对市场数据进行挖掘和分析,因为只有在知己知彼、信息充分的条件下,企业才具备可持续发展的能力。学术界也不例外。理工科需要反复实验得出数据,以作为成果和发现的重要依据;文科需要大量的文献和引述资料以佐证论点;商科对数据的依赖则更是无须赘述。那么问题来了:我们该如何收集数据?这些数据又要经过怎样的处理才能为我们所用?今天的微课就会为大家介绍数据的不同种类并推荐几种基本的数据收集方法,请观赏微课Types of Data and Basic Data Collection Methods。

马克思故乡发布“0欧元纪念钞”

The hometown of Karl Marx is cashing in on the philosopher's 200th birthday by selling special Marx-branded zero-euro notes.为纪念德国哲学家卡尔•马克思(Karl Marx)诞辰200周年,他的故乡特里尔发行了世界首张印有马克思头像的“0欧元”纪念钞。Trier, in the south west of Germany, has launched a wide range of memorabilia to celebrate the anniversary, but the ingenious move to sell money with Marx's face on has caught the most attention.位于德国西南部的特里尔为了迎接这个日子的到来,已经发行了一系列的纪念品,其中,印有马克思头像的0面值纪念钞,受到了最为广泛的关注。Available from Trier's tourist offices across the city, the notes — which look like real euro notes, but are not legal tender — cost €3 to buy.此次发行的纪念钞在特里尔各个旅游中心有售。这种钞票外观与通常的欧元无异,售价为3欧元/张,但是不能作流通货币使用。The note, which are authorized by the European Central Bank despite just being souvenirs and labelled so, have proven to be so popular that the first batch of 5,000 quickly sold out, forcing the city to order another 20,000 to cope with demand in the weeks running up to Marx’s birthday.这次的纪念钞虽然只以纪念品形式出售,但发行获得了欧洲央行的批准,且一经上市就十分抢手:第一批5000枚纪念钞迅速被抢购一空,使得特里尔紧急加印2万枚,以应对诞辰日到来前数周的市场需求。“The souvenir plays on Marx’s criticism of capitalism and of course the zero-euro note fits perfectly with Marx as a motif,” said Norbert Kaethler, managing director of Trier tourism office.特里尔旅游局的Norbert Kaethler经理表示,“这次的纪念钞正好契合了马克思对于资本主义的批判,0欧元的面值十分符合马克思主义思想。”Marx spent the first 17 years of his life living in Trier before going on to predict that socialism will one day overthrow capitalism. Despite being one of the most influential writers and philosophers in history, Marx spent several years of his life living in poverty.马克思曾经在特里尔度过了人生中前17年的岁月,在那之后,他预言社会主义终将取代资本主义。另一方面,尽管马克思是历史上最有影响力的哲学家和作家之一,他却在贫困中度过了人生的许多年岁。Trier has also started selling other bits of memorabilia for Marx’s coming anniversary. The city has also temporary changed the green and red traffic lights to images of Marx and a new stature of him will be unveiled on May 5.为迎接纪念日的到来,特里尔还推出了其他系列的纪念品。整座城市还将暂时将红绿灯换成马克思的肖像画;纪念日当天还会揭幕一座新的马克思雕塑。Euro at a Glimpse欧元一瞥The euro is the official currency of the European Union. Currently 19 of 28 member states use the euro (called the eurozone). It is the second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar.欧元是欧盟的官方货币。目前28个欧盟成员国中有19个国家使用欧元(这些国家被称为欧元区)。欧元是国际外汇市场上换手率第二高的货币,仅次于美元。The European Central Bank has its seat in Frankfurt, Germany and is in charge of the monetary policy of the euro area. As of 2017, with more than €1.1 trillion in circulation, the euro has the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world.总部位于德国法兰克福的欧洲央行负责制定欧元区的货币政策。2017年一年,流通中的欧元总量超过1.1万亿,是世界上组合价值最高的货币种类。The euro is subdivided into 100 cents. The coins are issued in €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, and 1c denominations. Notes are issued in €500, €200, €100, €50, €20, €10, €5. Each banknote has its own color and is dedicated to an artistic period of European architecture. The front of the note features windows or gateways while the back has bridges, symbolizing links between countries and with the future.1欧元等于100欧分。硬币面值有2欧元、1欧元、50欧分、20欧分、10欧分、5欧分、2欧分和1欧分,纸币面值则有500欧元、200欧元、100欧元、50欧元、20欧元、10欧元和5欧元。每种面额的纸钞都有特定的主色,并代表欧洲各时期的建筑风格。钞票的正面印有门和窗,背面则印有桥梁,象征着欧洲各国间联系紧密,也象征着通向未来。VOCABULARYmemorabilia:n.值得纪念的事物motif:n.主题denomination:n.面额

竹笋

春和日丽,正是啖笋好时节Bamboo grows all over China, and, despite its height, it is actually a grass. It is quick-growing and covers large tracts of land all over southern China.竹子遍布我国各地,尽管竹子长得挺拔高大,但它实际上属草类。竹子的生长速度很快,在我国南部地区,常常能见到成片的竹林。It is a versatile material that is used in everything ranging from houses to baskets, or even to objects as small as toothpicks. Bamboo is made into furniture, such as complete sets of tables and chairs, as well as ladders, hoes, trays and mats. Its uses are legion and sometimes unexpected, and actually contribute a large portion to Chinese culture.竹子是一种用途很广的制作材料,可用于搭建竹楼,编制竹篮,甚至用于制作小小的牙签。竹子也可以被制成各种家具(比如整套桌椅)以及梯子、锄头、托盘、席子等各类生活用具。竹子拥有多种多样且有时令人出其不意的用途,且竹子已经成为了中华文化中不可或缺的组成部分。Apart from its vast range of utilitarian purposes, bamboo also produces bamboo shoots, a unique Chinese ingredient seldom seen in other cuisines. Though Korean and Japanese cooking use them as well, no one prepares bamboo shoots like the Chinese chef.除了能制造各种实用器具,竹子的幼苗,竹笋,亦是中餐中一味独特的食材,在其他菜系中极为少见。尽管日本和韩国也烹调竹笋,但中国厨师处理笋的方法是独一无二的。When the spring thunderstorms come, the bamboo forests wake. As the rain soaks into the earth, dormant shoots that have lain underground all winter start swelling and poking their tips through the ground.阵阵春雨唤醒了竹林。当雨水浸润泥土,蛰伏地下一整个冬天的笋芽便开始纷纷蓬勃生长,从地底下探出头来。Bamboo shoots must be processed as soon as they are harvested, or they will quickly deteriorate once out of the ground. In Southwest China, the mountains of the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region produce slender bamboo shoots that are harvested when they are only about 10 centimeters long. This is the famous suansun, the tangy pickled bamboo shoots that go into every bowl of noodles in that region.一旦采摘,竹笋便要立即加工,否则就会因脱离泥土而迅速开始变质。在我国西南地区,广西壮族自治区的绵绵山峦中盛产一种纤细的竹笋品种,在其仅长至10厘米左右高时,就会被采摘。这就是制作酸笋的原料,酸笋味道浓郁,由这种竹笋腌制而成,是当地人吃面时的必备佐料。▲酸笋In Jiangsu province and Zhejiang province, equally tender shoots are pickled whole in sugar and salt for the famous "hand-stripped bamboo shoots", or shoubosun. They are delicious eaten as a chilled snack or as an accompaniment to millet or bean porridge.而在江浙一带,人们会用盐和糖腌渍整颗细嫩竹笋,制成著名的手剥笋。手剥笋味道鲜美,除了可以直接食用当作零嘴,也可作为喝小米粥或豆粥时的小菜。▲手剥笋The Cantonese, however, eat bamboo shoots all year round, from the fresh winter shoots to brined chunks to young fresh shoots cooked in a savory liqueur and served on a bed of shaved ice. Bamboo shoots are finely diced and used in classic dumplings to add tactile crunch and sweetness. They are also widely used in Cantonese dim sum, playing a crucial background role.广东人一年到头都会吃笋,无论是冬笋,卤水春笋,还是酱香嫩笋(这道菜往往会被放在刨冰上端上餐桌)。笋还常被细细地切成笋丁,包入云吞之中,从而打造爽脆香甜的口感。在粤式点心中,竹笋也常常作为重要的辅料得以广泛运用。▲红烧笋It takes an excellent chef to coax so many flavors from the bland little bamboo shoot, but then the Chinese chef has always had talent for creating ambrosia out of the most ordinary ingredients.只有一位优秀的中餐厨师,才能用这平淡无奇的小小竹笋,造就多种多样的风味;但中餐厨师似乎总是拥有将最普通的食材化腐朽为神奇的天赋。Vocabularyhoe:n.锄头dormant:adj.蛰伏的tangy:adj.味道浓烈的millet:n.小米ambrosia:n.美味佳肴
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练习丨VOA慢速英语:中美贸易局势剑拔弩张

VOA慢速英语:中美贸易局势剑拔弩张燕山大学 刘立军 编写○ TRANSCRIPTTensions between the United States and China are increasing over trade issues.On Wednesday, China announced plans to increase taxes on $50 billion of U.S. goods. The Chinese measures would increase tariffs by 25 percent on 106 products, such as soybeans, airplanes and cars. The Associated Press said the list includes the biggest U.S. exports to China.China's announcement answers U.S. President Donald Trump's plan to increase tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese goods. The U.S. list, released Tuesday, strikes at China's high-technology industries.Chinese officials did not say when the tariff increase on U.S. imports would take effect. They say the timing will depend on what the Trump administration does.On the U.S. side, the tensions between the two countries is tied to Trump's promise to reduce a trade deficit with China. Last year, the deficit was more than $375 billion.On the Chinese side, the ruling Communist Party is trying to develop the country's economy, especially high-tech companies. But foreign business people say Chinese rules limit competition and sometimes require them to help Chinese businesses improve their products.Chinese officials say their government does not discriminate against foreign businesses. And the deputy commerce minister told reporters that China had not planned to increase taxes on U.S. imports. It must be said, we have been forced into taking this action, he said.Many officials in both countries are urging the two sides to negotiate.However, a small but active group of people in China are already calling for a boycott of U.S. products.Internet commenters have noted the power of Chinese citizens. Last year, Chinese consumers informally boycotted South Korean goods after South Korea accepted a U.S.-made anti-missile system. Their boycott was estimated to have reduced South Korea's economic growth last year by 0.4 percentage points.As yet, observers do not see any signs of an organized campaign in China to reject U.S. goods. But they noted the danger of creating a negative image around American products.Wine expert Jim Boyce lives in Beijing and writes a blog called Grape wall of China. He said additional taxes on wine could have an effect, but that cost was not the only issue of concern.Are we going to see people in China worried about drinking American wine because of politics? He said. That's the bigger problem.I'm Kelly Jean Kelly.Adapted from 中美贸易局势剑拔弩张○ VOCABULARY1. tariff n. a tax that is paid on goods coming into or going out of a country 关税2. trade deficit n. [常用单数形式] a situation in which the value of a country's imports is greater than the value of its exports 外贸逆差;贸易赤字3. discriminate v. [单独使用的动词] discriminate (against sb.) | discriminate (in favour of sb.) to treat one person or group worse / better than another in an unfair way 区别对待;歧视;偏袒。例如:● practices that discriminate against women and in favour of men重男轻女的做法● It is illegal to discriminate on grounds of race, sex or religion. 因种族、性别或宗教信仰而有所歧视是非法的。4. boycott v. 联合抵制○ QUESTIONSRead the table. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks of the table with the words you hear.新闻要素 WHAT? Tensions between the United States and China are increasing over (1) ____________.WHY? ● On Wednesday, China announced plans to increase taxes on $50 billion of U.S. goods. The Chinese measures would increase tariffs by 25 percent on 106 products, such as (2)_____________________________________. The Associated Press said the list includes the biggest U.S. exports to China.● China's announcement answers U.S. President Donald Trump's plan to increase tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese goods. The U.S. list, released Tuesday, strikes at China's (3) ______________________________________.● Chinese officials did not say when the tariff increase on U.S. imports would (4) _____________________________. They say the timing will depend on what the Trump administration does.● On the U.S. side, the tensions between the two countries is tied to Trump's promise to (5) _____________________________________ with China. Last year, the deficit was more than $375 billion.● On the Chinese side, the ruling Communist Party is trying to develop the country's (6) _____________________, especially high-tech companies. But foreign business people say Chinese rules limit competition and sometimes require them to help Chinese businesses improve their products.● Chinese officials say their government does not (7) _____________________ foreign businesses. And the deputy commerce minister told reporters that China had not planned to increase taxes on U.S. imports. It must be said, we have been forced into taking this action, he said.HOW? ● Many officials in both countries are urging the two sides to (8) _____________.●However, a small but active group of people in China are already calling for a (9) ______________________________ of U.S. products.● Internet commenters have noted the power of Chinese citizens.● As yet, observers do not see any signs of (10) __________________________ in China to reject U.S. goods. But they noted the danger of creating a negative image around American products.○ KEY新闻要素 WHAT? Tensions between the United States and China are increasing over (1) trade issues.WHY? ● On Wednesday, China announced plans to increase taxes on $50 billion of U.S. goods. The Chinese measures would increase tariffs by 25 percent on 106 products, such as (2) soybeans, airplanes and cars. The Associated Press said the list includes the biggest U.S. exports to China.● China's announcement answers U.S. President Donald Trump's plan to increase tariffs on $50 billion worth of Chinese goods. The U.S. list, released Tuesday, strikes at China's (3) high-technology industries.● Chinese officials did not say when the tariff increase on U.S. imports would (4) take effect. They say the timing will depend on what the Trump administration does.● On the U.S. side, the tensions between the two countries is tied to Trump's promise to (5) reduce a trade deficit with China. Last year, the deficit was more than $375 billion.● On the Chinese side, the ruling Communist Party is trying to develop the country's (6) economy, especially high-tech companies. But foreign business people say Chinese rules limit competition and sometimes require them to help Chinese businesses improve their products.● Chinese officials say their government does not (7) discriminate against foreign businesses. And the deputy commerce minister told reporters that China had not planned to increase taxes on U.S. imports. It must be said, we have been forced into taking this action, he said.HOW? ● Many officials in both countries are urging the two sides to (8) negotiate.● However, a small but active group of people in China are already calling for a (9) boycott of U.S. products.● Internet commenters have noted the power of Chinese citizens.● As yet, observers do not see any signs of (10) an organized campaign in China to reject U.S. goods. But they noted the danger of creating a negative image around American products.

练习丨FOX新闻:晚点上课好处多

FOX新闻:晚点上课好处多燕山大学 刘立军 编写○ TRANSCRIPTIt's a scene repeated in households coast-to-coast. First...Then our kids turn it off and go back to sleep until, as Marty McFly declared in 'Back to the Future': "I'm late for school!" But wait, the new study finds that starting school later could be a good thing.Resulting, it says, in a higher academic performance and gets this, reduced car crash rates and that it would improve public health and the economy. Concluding that delaying the sound of this could, believe it or not, pump more than $9 billion into the economy every year!Gary Baumgarten, FOX News.Adapted from 晚点上课好处多○ VOCABULARY1. household n. all the people living together in a house 一家人;家庭;同住一所房子的人。例如:● Most households now own at least one car. 大多数家庭现在至少有一辆汽车● low-income/one-parent, etc. households低收入、单亲等家庭● the head of the household户主2. pump sth. into sth. | pump sth. in: to put a lot of money into sth. 向…大量投资;注入大量资金。例如:He pumped all his savings into the business. 他把全部积蓄都投入了该企业。○ QUESTIONSListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.1. What is the finding of the new study?A. Starting school later could be a good thing.B. Starting school later could be a bad thing.C. Starting school early could be a good thing.D. Starting school early could be a bad thing.2. What is the conclusion of the new study?A. It would result in a higher academic performance.B. It could reduce car crash rates.C. It would improve public health and the economy.D. It could pump more than $9 billion into the economy every year.○ KEY1. A。细节题。命题出处:But wait, the new study finds that starting school later could be a good thing.2.D。细节题。命题出处:Resulting, it says, in a higher academic performance and gets this, reduced car crash rates and that it would improve public health and the economy. Concluding that delaying the sound of this could, believe it or not, pump more than $9 billion into the economy every year!

练习丨FOX新闻:睡眠不足可使腰围变粗

FOX新闻:睡眠不足可使腰围变粗燕山大学 刘立军 编写○ TRANSCRIPTThis is Housecall for Health. So, not only could skimping on your sleep hurt your mental health or give you bags under your eyes, but it could also add some pounds to your waistline. This new study, which followed 1600 adults who self-reported sleeping habits, found that those who got an average of six hours of shuteye had a waist circumference three centimeters larger than those who slept for nine hours a night. Those who were skimping on sleep also had higher BMI and lower good-cholesterol levels.There was a group who fell in between six and nine hours, with participants getting an average of 7.5 hours of shuteye. Those adults still fared better than those who were only getting six hours.Researchers emphasized that they didn't find a link between less sleep and poorer diets, nor did they prove a direct explanation as to whether less sleep caused you to gain weight or was the result of weight gain. For more on this story, check FOX News Health.com. Housecall for Health, I'm Alex Hein, FOX News.Adapted from 睡眠不足可使腰围变粗○ VOCABULARY1. skimp v. [单独使用的动词] skimp (on sth.) to try to spend less time, money, etc. on sth. than is really needed 节省,吝惜(时间、钱等)。例如:Older people should not skimp on food or heating.老人吃饭和取暖不应吝惜。2. bags under your eyes n. 眼袋3. shuteye n. 合眼; 睡觉 Shuteye is sleep. 例如:Go home and get some shuteye. 回家睡一会儿。4. circumference n. [可数名词, 不可数名词] a line that goes around a circle or any other curved shape; the length of this line 圆周;圆周长。例如:● the circumference of the earth地球的周长● The earth is almost 25000 miles in circumference. 地球的周长大约为25000英里。5. fare v. [单独使用的动词] fare well, badly, better, etc. to be successful / unsuccessful in a particular situation 成功(或不成功、更好等)。[同义词] get on 例如:The party fared very badly in the last election. 该党上次竞选情况很糟。○QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the words you hear.This is Housecall for Health. So, not only could skimping on your sleep (1)__________________________ or (2) ___________________________, but it could also (3) __________________________________. This new study, which followed 1600 adults who self-reported (4) ________________________________, found that those who got an average of (5) ___________________________ of shuteye had a waist circumference three centimeters larger than those who slept for nine hours a night. Those who were skimping on sleep also had higher BMI and lower good-cholesterol levels.There was a group who fell in between six and nine hours, with participants getting an average of (6) __________________________ of shuteye. Those adults still fared better than those who were only getting six hours.Researchers emphasized that they didn't find a link (7)_________________________________, nor did they prove (8)_________________________________as to whether less sleep caused you to (9)________________________or was the result of (10) ___________________________. For more on this story, check FOX News Health.com. Housecall for Health, I'm Alex Hein, FOX News.○ KEYThis is Housecall for Health. So, not only could skimping on your sleep (1)hurt your mental health or (2)give you bags under your eyes, but it could also (3)add some pounds to your waistline. This new study, which followed 1600 adults who self-reported (4)sleeping habits, found that those who got an average of (5)six hours of shuteye had a waist circumference three centimeters larger than those who slept for nine hours a night. Those who were skimping on sleep also had higher BMI and lower good-cholesterol levels.There was a group who fell in between six and nine hours, with participants getting an average of (6)7.5 hours of shuteye. Those adults still fared better than those who were only getting six hours.Researchers emphasized that they didn't find a link (7)between less sleep and poorer diets, nor did they prove (8)a direct explanation as to whether less sleep caused you to (9)gain weight or was the result of (10)weight gain. For more on this story, check FOX News Health.com. Housecall for Health, I'm Alex Hein, FOX News.