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炎炎夏日中的冰爽美味

China has entered Toufu on July 17th, the first phase of Sanfu. In the Chinese lunar calendar, Sanfu refers to the hottest period of the year, which includes three phases, that is, Toufu, Zhongfu and Mofu. On the long, hot summer days, few people have a good appetite. Ice cream and fruit sound more refreshing than a bowl of hot noodles.7月17日我国正式进入“头伏”,也就是三伏天的第一阶段。在中国农历中,三伏天意味着一年中最热的一段日子,前中后分为“头伏”、“中伏”和“末伏”三个阶段。在漫长的炎炎夏日中,人们的胃口常常欠佳,这个时候,相比一碗热气腾腾的汤面,冰激凌和水果就显得更加诱人了。Ice cream may be deemed as western dessert: the classic creamy texture is quite different from Chinese tastes. Actually, Chinese people have enjoyed "ice cream" in summer since ancient time. Here are some icy delicacies on summer days in ancient China and currently popular ones.冰激凌在我们印象中总是显得很西式:经典细腻的口感和我们东方的口味显得相距甚远。但实际上,中国的古人很早就开始享用那时的“冰激凌”了,接下来我们就来看一下古时和现在的一些夏日冰爽佳品。Icy Delicacy Favored by Royals and Nobles — Sushan 皇家风范的“酥山”Sushan is a dish that looks like crushed ice with milk and butter. Wang Lingran, a Chinese Tang Dynasty Poet, described how people made and enjoyed Sushan in his poem Ode to Su He Shan. According to the text, sugar was added to Sushan of different  shapes. Sometimes, Sushan was decorated with flowers and leaves to make it more beautiful.酥山看起来就像淋上牛奶和黄油的刨冰。在唐朝诗人王泠然的《苏合山赋》中详细讲了唐人制作、使用酥山的过程。酥山上加入糖,可将其变换为各种形态,辅以花朵和绿叶点缀,更显美丽诱人。His poem is cited by many scholars as evidence that Sushan is an early form of ice cream. However, only the royals and nobles were lucky enough to have large iceboxes to make this delicacy in summer.很多学者认为王泠然对酥山的描绘证明了其作为我国最早的“冰激凌”的起源,但是在那时,只有王公贵族在炎炎夏日才有这番待遇能够享受到冰凉美味的酥山。Simple, Refreshing Icy Treats简单、沁人的“冰”品Although there were no fridges in ancient times, iceboxes to store ice cubes in summer were very common in rich families by the Tang Dynasty.尽管古人没有冰箱,但发明出了储存冰块的冰盒,到了唐朝,这种器具已经在富贵人家中很普遍了。At that time, common people could only afford ice water and shaved ice. People could easily buy iced beverages on the street during the Song Dynasty. For the benefit of the community, some rich people even offered free ice water and medicine to people in need on the street for free in hot summer.但那时,普通人能享用到的“冰品”其实只有冰水和刨冰那么简单,在宋朝,冰镇饮料已经在大街小巷中普及。作为社会慈善的一部分,有些富人家还会在街上免费提供冰水和解暑药给需要的人。Mung beans and licorice were often added to ice water sold during the Song Dynasty to help prevent heat stroke.宋朝人喝的冰水中还常常加入绿豆和甘草,用来防止中暑。Resurrection from Brick-shaped Ice Cream to Fancy Sundaes从冰砖到圣代的华丽蜕变In recent years, classic Chinese brands of ice cream and popsicles are finding new ways to lure customers back, and here we see how Yimin, a time-honored Shanghai brand did the trick. 我国经典的冰糕品牌近年来不断探索新方法,吸引消费者的目光。上海的老字号益民食品厂,便是一个典型的例子。Speaking of Yimin's classic products, one has to mention its brick-shaped dessert which became one of the most popular ice cream after going on sale in the 1950s. Its popularity continued through the 1980s and 1990s, making it an important part of the childhood memory of several generations. Its size and shape resembled a soap bar. And consumers would dip it in soda water, mix it with cookies and fruits, or even use  it as a dressing for fruit salad after it melts.说到益民旗下的经典产品,不得不提那“光明冰砖”。自上世纪50年代问世以来,直到80、90年代,一直都是夏天最热门的冷饮之一,陪伴了好几代人走过了童年的夏天。冰砖的形状如一块肥皂,顾客买来不仅可以直接吃,还可以泡上苏打水,拌入曲奇饼干和水果,甚至还可以任其融化,倒在水果沙拉上吃,可谓是吃法繁多。However, in the new century, a large number of imported ice cream brands began to compete with domestic brands for more market share. In recent years, local brands eventually started to fight back after years of stagnation – including the creative "Tri-color Cup" and this year's new product: Durian Sundae. If these new delicious treats will offer you nostalgia as a bonus, why not give it a try?新世纪以来大量的外资冰激凌品牌涌入使得本土品牌的生存空间越来越小。在经历了多年的停滞不前后,近年国产品牌开始逐渐发力,推出了新款“三色杯”,今年还推出了创意满满的“榴莲圣代”。当浓醇的美味得以创新和延续,加上一丝清新的怀旧情怀,何尝不去尝试一下老字号的新产品呢?

故宫博物院

The Palace Museum in Beijing, or the Forbidden City, has received more than 100 million visitors since January 2012, according to the museum.首都北京的故宫博物院,也就是我们所熟知的紫禁城,据馆方的消息说,自2012年1月以来已经突破了1亿的累计客流。To avoid overcrowding during peak season, the museum has allowed a maximum of 80,000 visitors per day since June 2015, compared with more than 100,000 or even 180,000 visitors per day previously.为了避免在旅游旺季出现人挤人的情形,博物院自2015年6月起开始实行每天限流8万人的政策。而在政策实施前,故宫动辄就会出现超10万甚至18万的日客流。Controlling visitor numbers is aimed at protecting both the cultural relics and visitors. The museum will further improve its management and conduct a pilot scheme of selling different amounts of tickets at different periods during the day in 2019.实施限流不仅是为了保护文物,同时也是为了保障游客的人身安全。博物院还将在2019年加强管理,试行分时段售票政策。As a renowned world cultural heritage site and home to priceless art works and artefacts, the Palace Museum is a must-see for tourists and saw a record high of 16.7 million visitors in 2017.作为世界著名的文化遗产,故宫拥有无数的艺术珍宝和历史遗存,是来京游客的必到景点,曾在2017年创下1670万人的最高年客流记录。Meanwhile, the Palace Museum has been making every effort to repair the palace complex with a view to open more sections to the public. Back to 2015, when the Forbidden City celebrated its 90th anniversary, four new sections were unveiled, including the palace that housed the emperor's mother, making 65 percent of the complex accessible to the public. It is estimated that before 2020, more than 85% of the whole area will be ready to open to the public.与此同时,故宫博物院一直在不遗余力地修缮、开放新区域。在2015年,为了迎接故宫90周年院庆,四大未曾开放的区域整修后亮相世人,其中包括了慈禧的寝宫,使得整个故宫开放的区域达到了65%。此外官方预计在2020年前,故宫的开放区域能扩大到85%。Located in the heart of Beijing, the Palace Museum was home to emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties. After the revolution of 1911, which ended the reign of the Qing Dynasty, the last emperor, Puyi, didn’t leave the palace until 1924, when he was expelled.位于北京中心位置的故宫博物院曾经是明清两朝的皇宫。1911年辛亥革命推翻了清王朝后,末代皇帝溥仪仍居留在此,直至1924年被逐出皇宫。Over the following years, many treasures were lost due to social unrest. Lacking of proper maintenance further exacerbated the worsening condition of the old palace. In the next several decades, the museum has been taking great efforts to renovate and recover the huge complex. It is a year-long and difficult project to restore more than 9,000 rooms taking 72 hectares.接踵而至的社会动荡让故宫的文物大量流失,日常维护的缺失更使得故宫的状况日益恶化。随后的几十年中,馆方耗费了大量的精力对这一庞大的皇宫进行修缮,但修复这片占地72公顷,拥有9000多间房间的建筑群仍是一项漫长而艰难的工程。Nowadays, the Palace Museum faces new problems such as protection and large number of visitors. Since January 2014, the museum has been closed to public every Monday for renovation and maintenance work. Visitors are suggested to book tickets online in advance.如今,故宫博物院除了修缮外,还面临着高客流量和随之带来的安全问题。自2014年1月起,故宫每周一闭馆,进行集中修缮和维护。游客也被建议提前在网上购票。VOCABULARYpilot scheme: 试点方案artefact:n. 制品,人工产物exacerbate:v. 恶化;加重

“西兰花”咖啡亮相

1Green coffee could be the way of future after Australian scientists discovered that "broccoli lattes" are a healthy alternative to regular, flat white coffees.澳洲科学家研究表明,“西兰花”咖啡将在未来成为大势之趋,这款更为健康的咖啡饮品可以将普通的奶咖取而代之。2Researchers at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization have developed a powdered broccoli product which can be used in coffee, smoothies, soups and baking to get essential nutrients into Australian diets.来自澳洲科学与工业研究院(CSIRO)的科学家们研发出一种特制“西兰花粉”,通过将其添加到咖啡、冰沙、汤羹或烘焙制品中,就能为每份膳食提供足够的营养。3"Green, nutrient-rich coffees may be on the horizon after researchers have developed a powder made from imperfect-looking broccoli that would have previously been wasted," the organization said in a recent statement.该研究院近期在一份报告中指出,“人们常常将那些卖相较差的的西兰花扔掉,造成浪费,但是我们将它“废物利用”。新研发的西兰花粉绿色、健康,或许会在未来拥有广阔的前景。”4Unsurprisingly, Australian diets are no better than other western countries such as Britain and America. Research shows the average Australian is still not eating the recommended daily intake of vegetables a day, and options such as broccoli powder will help address this issue.澳洲的饮食结构与其他典型的西方国家如英国、美国相似,都重荤轻素。研究人员发现,当今澳大利亚人每日仍然没有摄入充足的蔬菜食入量,推出方便易用的西兰花粉或许可以改善饮食不均衡的现状。5The 100-percent broccoli powder is made from whole broccoli and produced using a combination of selected pretreatment and drying processes to retain the natural color, flavor and nutrient composition.这种100%纯西兰花粉将整颗西兰花经过预处理后进行干燥,保留了原有色泽,口味的同时,也锁住了营养物质。6Research also indicates that the broccoli is high in protein, fiber and health-promoting bioactive phytochemicals, making it an ideal candidate for powder development.研究还表明西兰花是一种富含蛋白质、纤维和高生物活性物质的健康食物,这也让它顺理成章成为制作健康蔬菜粉的首选材料。7The broccoli powder and associated snacks are being developed as part of a larger research and development project that aims to reduce vegetable waste by creating healthy food products from "ugly" produce.西兰花粉和随之同步推出的各类附属零食只是研究院开拓新兴蔬菜产品的第一步。据悉,今后会有更多的蔬菜类健康食品问世,通过对“相貌平平”的蔬菜们进行“大改造”,减少蔬菜浪费。Broccoli and Cauliflower西兰花和花椰菜1Broccoli and cauliflower are two different species in the same family ? cabbage family. Despite claims that the two are so similar they are nearly interchangeable, there are some notable differences between these vegetables. They look different, they don’t taste exactly the same, and they offer distinctive nutrients.西兰花和花椰菜都是甘蓝的变种。尽管两种蔬菜形态上相似,人们也常常混淆两者,但是它们有着显著的差异:外观不同,味道不同,营养组成也有差异。Broccoli?Cauliflower?2In appearance, most cauliflower has closely bunched tight masses that appear together on stems. Broccoli's flower masses are more loosely distributed so that it's possible to see space in between each stalk. Sometimes, broccoli is compared to tiny trees, while cauliflower looks more like masses of cumulus clouds. Cauliflower is also typically white in color with light green leaves surrounding the head, while the other vegetable can be dark green or sometimes have purple streaks through it.外观上,大多数的花椰菜都有着巨大的花芽,紧密地簇拥在一起。西兰花的花芽则稀松点,并不是全部“挤在一起”,因此能看见花梗间的缝隙。西兰花常被人比作一棵棵“小树”,而花椰菜看上去更像是一团团云朵。花椰菜通常都是白色,外围由绿叶围绕,西兰花则呈深绿色,有时还会有紫色泛出。VOCABULARY smoothie:n. 冰沙 pretreatment:n. 预处理 cumulus:n. 积云

第八届教学大赛二等奖季佳平授课

“路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索。”★参赛感言★2009年夏天,我怀揣梦想来到南通师范高等专科学校,成为一名英语教师。初为人师的我,时刻铭记着“坚苦自立,忠实不欺”的校训,丝毫不敢懈怠。然而,教学之路并非一马平川。执教之初我便发现高职学生生性好动、乐于学习,但他们的英语语言能力相对较低。怎样让他们善学、善思、善用呢?所幸在我执教的这所老师范院校里我找到了答案——教在学生疑难处、教在知识重点处、教在学力潜能处。“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛已经举办了八届,我先后参加了第四届和第八届比赛。两次比赛对于我来说是难得的锻炼,我收获的不仅是先进的教育理念、积极的创新思维和优化的教学方法,更是触动心灵的感悟。以这次全国决赛为例,我抽到的是“Edge kidsand influencers”这篇文章。拿到题目的两天中,我查阅了国内外大大小小的网站,但一无所获。可想而知,组委会这样做不仅是为了比赛的公平,更是为了考验选手的实力。两周的备赛时间,既艰苦又煎熬。其间,我冥思苦想、不断修改、反复演练,最终我否定了前几稿内容,决定基于主题,从edge kids和influencers的定义、重要性、必要性和价值出发,优化教学设计。这样环环相扣的阅读任务不仅能让学生吃透文本,更能让他们在忠于原文却高于原文的基础上顺利完成最后的写作练习,以形成“以读促写,以写带读”的良性循环。然而非常遗憾的是,决赛时的紧张氛围让我在教学过程中语言缺乏逻辑性和准确性,未能取得理想的教学效果。正如李力教授在颁奖典礼上所言:“英语教师不仅要有扎实的语言基本功,更需要有良好的语言素养。”这番话让我为之一震,意识到这是我需要努力前进的方向。通过这次教学大赛,我领略了大赛评委老师们的渊博学识,见识了同行们的精湛技艺,感受到了校领导和同事们的关心与帮助,更明白了教学的任重道远。最后我希望自己能像一缕阳光一样,为孩子们驱散黑暗、照亮前程。我相信有爱就有光,有光就有一切。愿我的一份坚守能陪伴着他们在未来的人生路上走得更好、更远。授课点评专家:李富森教授季佳平老师授课选文的标题是 “Edge kids and influencers”。总体来说,季老师教态自然、有亲和力,教学理念明确、思路清晰,教学任务安排合理。具体而言,有以下特点:1.教学基本功扎实,具有良好的语言表达能力及较强的英语课堂教学设计能力,能较好地激发学生学习语言的积极性和主动性。比如在课程导入环节,季老师选取时尚、新颖的图片,有助于启发学生积极思考,引出主题及教学目标。2.教学目标明确:如语言目标、能力目标和情感目标。教学思路清晰,教学任务安排合理,对课文布局及语言知识的讲解详细,能较好地把握重点、难点的讲授。例如,以 statement、example、restatement为主线进行文章结构分析,并通过撰写书信引导学生总结所学知识,引导有效,设计巧妙。3.各教学步骤的时间分配及活动安排较好地体现了以学生为中心的教学理念。教学方法得当,采用任务型教学与分组讨论相结合的方式,有效帮助学生理解学习材料,有利于培养学生的语言综合运用能力,从而提高学生的思辨能力、思考能力和分析能力。例如,季老师通过下定义的方式学习关键词、使用学生熟悉的 WIFI式关系图表述关键词之间的关系。4.教态自然、活泼,有感染力,善于营造良好的课堂氛围,整个授课过程清晰、流畅。和说课相比,季老师在授课环节的教态平稳了许多,能有效调动学生的学习积极性。在评委提问环节,季老师对问题的回答正确、合理,应变能力较强。不足之处是,季老师英文表达虽然清晰流畅,但是个别单词的发音应克服一些造成发音不够标准的习惯,例如 spread、name、one、people、word等词中元音的发音需要再准确一些。

第八届教学大赛二等奖秦雅芬授课

“要让学生超越老师,就要把发现、探索和思考的权利交给学生。”★参赛感言★作为一名执教仅仅一年的青年教师,能够参加我国规模最大、层次最高、影响最广的全国性外语教学专项比赛是我的荣幸。我是怀着向其他优秀英语教师学习的心情参加这次教学比赛的。从江西分赛区的复赛和决赛到全国决赛和总决赛,一次次的进步让我充满信心,并让我更加坚信:作为青年教师,一定要敢于尝试,敢于突破,敢于挑战!为期近半年的比赛已经结束一个月了,这次比赛让我受益匪浅,感慨万千。下面,我将谈谈自己的参赛感受。首先,“合抱之木,生于毫末。九层之台,起于累土”。如果教师平时的积累不够,想要在比赛时发挥出色是很难的。所以,作为一名教师,需要不断积累知识,保持终身学习。平时备课时,我会在网上广泛地查找各类资料,以求丰富课堂。而这次全国比赛中,我用的一段乔布斯在斯坦福大学的演讲视频,“Stay hungry,stay foolish”,就是我平时备课时积累下来的资料。我在全国比赛中抽到的文章标题是“There's a lot more to life than a job”。对于高职学生来说,这篇文章比较难懂,因为文中有一些比较抽象的概念,比如:“… education teaches us to see the connections between things,and to see beyond our immediate needs.”。学生读到这句话的时候可能会感到疑惑,see the connections between things和see beyond our immediate needs是什么意思?connections between things是什么和什么的联系?immediate needs是指哪些需求?对于这些疑惑,我该如何用有趣的方法去解答呢?此时,我想到了乔布斯的这段演讲。他说他当年学习了书法,虽然当时并没有想过有一天会将其运用到工作中去,但十年之后,他将书法运用到了设计苹果电脑的字体中去,创造了当时电子产品中最美的字体。这段演讲完美地诠释了see the connections between things(乔布斯看到了书法和设计苹果电脑软件之间的联系),也诠释了see beyond our immediate needs(告诉同学们不能目光短浅,应该像乔布斯一样有远见)。有人说,学生要一杯水,教师要有一桶水。而在学习资源如此丰富的今天,仅仅是一桶水已经无法满足学生,教师要像一条湍流不息的大河,不断地积累各方面的知识,才能成为优秀的教师。其次,“一人难挑千斤担,众人能移万座山”。从四月份学校的初赛,到江西分赛区的复赛,再到全国的总决赛,外国语学院的领导和同事们都给了我极大的支持和鼓励。领导们一次次地帮我组织、安排学生配课,和同事们一起,一遍遍地帮我打磨课程、修改课程。正是因为领导和同事们的帮助,才让我呈现出一堂精心设计的课程,才让我有前行的信心。从省赛到全国比赛,一路走来,我观摩了全国最优秀的教师们的精彩授课和说课,收到了全国最权威的评委们的点评,这些都激励着我在英语教学中不断努力,不断寻求创新和突破!授课点评专家:沈银珍教授秦雅芬老师授课的课文标题是“ There's a lot more to life than a job”。从整堂课的教学来看,秦老师对教学内容、教学过程进行了精心设计和准备,其教学思路清晰,目标明确,语言流畅,有亲和力,教态自然大方,给人留下深刻印象。教学过程由 lead-in、reading comprehension、language function、structure analysis、assignment等五部分组成。导入部分选用了关于一位在国外留学的学生的视频,现身说法,引出 major、life and job等话题,让学生展开讨论。教学中采用问题导向,引导学生分析问题、解决问题。如在阅读理解部分,先让学生分组讨论,找出文章中提及的当今大学生价值观方面存在的问题,即物质第一(大多数学生选择专业和课程的目的是为了有一份高薪工作),继而引导学生分析这一问题存在的原因,并通过乔布斯、邵逸夫、扎克伯格等的典型事例,说明教育的目的并不是为了眼前的利益和一份赚钱的工作,人们的生活除了工作以外还有其他很多方面,如家庭、朋友、道德、责任等等,由此告诫学生要有广博的知识和远大的目标,作为教育工作者要引导学生树立正确的价值观、人生观等。值得一提的是,秦老师将教学的五个部分有机衔接,过渡自然。在阅读理解的过程中,自然而然地解决了部分词汇和语法结构的问题。不足之处包括:在语言技能的训练方面,显得有些仓促,应该花更多的时间让学生操练相关句型和重点词汇,而非简单地做几道翻译练习。教师在归纳总结之前,可以让学生针对文章的主题展开辩论,这样一方面能提高学生的学习兴趣,活跃课堂氛围,让学生都能参与到课堂教学中来,另一方面也能锻炼学生的语言表达能力和思辨能力。

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:蚊子能识别危险气味

科学美国人60秒:蚊子能识别危险气味燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for particular species or even certain individuals. At the same time, their tastes can change, depending on the circumstances. One species of skeeter in California, for example, has a fondness in summer for robins, but will settle for mammals once the birds head south for the winter.But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by nose - and by their intended victim's behavior. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the scent of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid individuals who try to swat them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.Researchers took female mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a human volunteer. The other contained a control solution of mineral oil. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed an obvious preference for eu d' Homo sapiens.Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to flee from the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to human odor with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their appetite for the previously attractive scent.That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in learning and memory in other insects.So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to avoid danger.Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for curbing the spread of diseases carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are slow learners (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat.Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201808/560139.shtmlVOCABULARY1. skeeter n. (North Amercian English, informal, humorous) = mosquito 蚊子2. robin n. a grey American bird with a red breast, larger than a European robin 旅鸫,美洲知更鸟(毛灰色,胸部红色,比欧亚鸲大)3. mammal n. any animal that gives birth to live babies, not eggs, and feeds its young on milk. Cows, humans and whales are all mammals. 哺乳动物4. olfactory adj. [只用于名词前] (technical 术语) connected with the sense of smell 嗅觉的。例如:olfactory cells / nerves / organs嗅觉细胞 / 神经 / 器官5. swat v. [动词 + 名词短语] to hit sth., especially an insect, using your hand or a flat object 拍,打(昆虫等)6. maze n. a system of paths separated by walls or hedges built in a park or garden, that is designed so that it is difficult to find your way through 迷宫。例如:We got lost in the maze. 我们在迷宫里迷失了方向。7. suffuse v. [动词 + 名词短语][常用被动态] suffuse sb./sth. (with sth.) (literary) (especially of a colour, light or feeling 尤指颜色、光线或感情) to spread all over or through sb. / sth. 布满;弥漫于;充满。例如:Her face was suffused with colour. 她满脸通红。8. aroma n. a pleasant, noticeable smell 芳香;香味。例如:the aroma of fresh coffee新鲜咖啡的香味9. akin to sth.: (formal) similar to 相似的;类似的。例如:What he felt was more akin to pity than love. 他感受到的更像怜悯,而不是爱。10. maneuver n. 策略11. neurotransmitter n. (biology 生) a chemical that carries messages from nerve cells to other nerve cells or muscles 神经递质(在神经细胞间或向肌肉传递信息)12. dopamine n. [不可数名词] a chemical produced by nerve cells which has an effect on other cells 多巴胺(神经细胞产生的一种作用于其他细胞的化学物质)13. molecular adj. 分子的14. curb v. [动词 + 名词短语] to control or limit sth., especially sth. bad 控制,抑制,限定,约束(不好的事物)。例如:He needs to learn to curb his temper. 他得学着控制自己的脾气。A range of policies have been introduced aimed at curbing inflation. 为了抑制通货膨胀实施了一系列的政策。15. dengue n. [不可数名词] a disease caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes , that is found in tropical areas and causes fever and severe pain in the joints 登革热(由蚊子传播的热带疾病,症状为发烧和关节剧痛)QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.1. When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for (Q1) ____________________________ or even (Q2) _____________________. At the same time, their (Q3) ______________ can change, depending on the (Q4) __________________.2. But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by (Q5) ____________ - and by (Q6) __________________________. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the (Q7) ___________ of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid (Q8) ________ who try to (Q9) ______ them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.3. Researchers took (Q10) ______________ mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a (Q11) _____________________ volunteer. The other contained a control solution of (Q12) _____________________. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed (Q13) ____________________ for eu d' Homo sapiens.4. Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to (Q14) _______________ the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to (Q15) _________________ with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their (Q16) ________________ for the previously attractive scent.5. That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in (Q17) __________________________ in other insects.6. So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to (Q18) ___________________________.7. Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for (Q19) __________________________________ carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are (Q20) ____________________ (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat. KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.1. When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for (Q1) particular species or even (Q2) certain individuals. At the same time, their (Q3) tastes can change, depending on the (Q4) circumstances.2. But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by (Q5) nose - and by (Q6) their intended victim's behavior. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the (Q7) scent of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid (Q8) individuals who try to (Q9) swat them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.3. Researchers took (Q10) female mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a (Q11) human volunteer. The other contained a control solution of (Q12) mineral oil. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed (Q13) an obvious preference for eu d' Homo sapiens.4. Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to (Q14) flee from the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to (Q15) human odor with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their (Q16) appetite for the previously attractive scent.5. That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in (Q17) learning and memory in other insects.6. So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to (Q18) avoid danger.7. Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for (Q19) curbing the spread of diseases carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are (Q20) slow learners (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat.

练习 | 特雷莎·梅在73届联大谈女孩教育问题

特雷莎·梅在73届联大谈女孩教育问题燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTPrime Minister Theresa May’s Speech about Girls’ Education at UNGA25 September 2018Thank you. Thank you very much, indeed. And I’m delighted to be here. And first of all, can I say thank you to President Macron and…and Prime Minister Trudeau - Emmanuel and Justin - and also thank you to the governments of Kenya, Niger and Jordan as co-hosts of this event with whom we are working to support girls’ education around the world.Today, over 130 million girls did not go to school. 130 million girls - most of them in the world’s poorest countries - did not have the opportunity to learn and develop the skills that most of us in this room take for granted. 130 million girls did not receive an education, without which their unique and almost unlimited potential will never be unlocked.By denying girls an education, we deny them a voice, we deny them choice, we deny them their future.Now, I know I am extraordinarily grateful for the choices the education I had gave me. Growing up I was blessed with good schools, a supportive learning environment, encouragement from my teachers and from my parents. And I have always said: “Education is the key that unlocks the door to your future.” I want all girls around the world to be able to unlock that door.Over the next decade, millions of young girls will enter the jobs market. As they do so, they have the potential not just to lift themselves, their families and their countries out of poverty, but also to grow the global economy, create new markets and find solutions to shared challenges that we all face. Yet without education, that incredible potential will not be realized - and all our futures will be all the poorer for it.So, improving access to education is not only the right thing to do, it is also at the heart of the UK’s drive to boost economic growth, improve stability and reduce conflict around the world. A more educated world is a better world for all of us, and the UK has long led the way in making it easier for girls around the globe to access 12 years of quality education.Since 2015, we’ve helped at least 5.6 million girls in developing countries gain a decent education, and this commitment will continue. Earlier this year, I pledged almost £400 million of UK Aid for the second phase of our Girls’ Education Challenge. This is a programme that is already supporting 1 million girls around the world to continue their education through primary, secondary school and training. And it is also giving girls who have dropped out or never attended school due to poverty, motherhood, disability or conflict a chance to learn through catch-up classes and vital skills training.And phase two of the Challenge will see new projects that specifically target the most vulnerable and marginalised girls, including those with disabilities. And I’m pleased to announce today nine such projects, which will support more than 170,000 of the world’s most marginalised girls. This includes in Ethiopia, where we will fund counselling and mentoring to help girls enrol and stay in school, and teacher training to help improve the quality of education. And that project will help over 70,000 girls access education, including up to 3,500 girls with disabilities.And elsewhere, we will be funding projects that help girls affected by war - who are more than twice as likely to be out of school compared to those not living in conflict zones.And while our work is making an immeasurable difference to the lives of those it helps, to make sure no girls are left behind requires truly global co-ordinated action. Nations, donors, multinationals and other organisations working together to secure real and lasting change.So we’ve launched a global campaign and we are pushing for commitments to girls’ education from governments around the world. And we received many such commitments at April’s Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, at which leaders including Justin pledged to ensure that all girls and boys across the Commonwealth will be able to access 12 years of quality education and learning by 2030.Today, I am calling on everyone here to join our campaign. [To] Commit to the individual, collective and governmental action that’s needed to break down barriers to girls’ education. To increase girls’ access to schools and learning. To ensure that every girl, in every corner of the world, can access the 12 years of education they need to unleash their potential, embrace the opportunities before them, and help change the world for the better.Adapted from https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/u1fP8ELTCkFZ83i5m9mS_QVOCABULARY1.potential n. [不可数名词] qualities that exist and can be developed 潜力;潜。例如:All children should be encouraged to realize their full potential. 应当鼓励所有的儿童充分发挥他们的潜能。She has great potential as an artist. 她很有潜质,是一位可造就的艺术家。He has the potential to become a world-class musician. 他有潜力成为世界级的音乐家。The house has a lot of potential. 这所房子颇具潜力。2.be blessed with sth. /sb.: to have sth. good such as ability, great happiness, etc. 赋有(能力等);享有(幸福等)。例如:She's blessed with excellent health. 她身体很好,是一种福气。We're blessed with five lovely grandchildren. 我们很有福气,有五个可爱的孙子孙女。3. catch-up n. [不可数名词] the act of trying to reach the same level or standard as sb. who is ahead of you (向别人水平的)追赶。例如:It was a month of catch-up for them. 他们那个月急起直追。4. vulnable adj. (地方)易受攻击的5. multinational n. a company that operates in several different countries, especially a large and powerful company 跨国公司6. unleash v. [动词 + 名词短语] unleash sth. (on/upon sb./sth.) to suddenly let a strong force, emotion, etc. be felt or have an effect 发泄;突然释放;使爆发。例如:The government's proposals unleashed a storm of protest in the press. 政府的提案引发了新闻界的抗议浪潮。7. embrace v. (formal) to put your arms around sb. as a sign of love or friendship 抱;拥抱。[单独使用的动词] They embraced and promised to keep in touch. 他们互相拥抱,许诺将保持联系。[动词 + 名词短语] She embraced her son warmly. 她热情地拥抱儿子。QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Thank you. Thank you very much, indeed. And I’m (Q1) _____________________ to be here. And (Q2)________________________, can I say thank you to President Macron and…and Prime Minister Trudeau - Emmanuel and Justin - and (Q3) _____________________ thank you to the governments of Kenya, Niger and Jordan as co-hosts of this event with whom we are working to support girls’ education around the world.Today, over 130 million girls did not go to school. 130 million girls - most of them in the world’s poorest countries - did not have the opportunity to learn and develop the skills that most of us in this room (Q4) _________________________. 130 million girls did not (Q5) ______________________, without which their unique and almost unlimited potential will never be unlocked.By denying girls an education, we deny them a (Q6) ___________, we deny them (Q7)________, we deny them their (Q8)__________________.Now, I know I am extraordinarily grateful for the choices the education I had gave me. Growing up I (Q9)__________________________ good schools, a supportive learning environment, encouragement from my teachers and from my parents. And I have always said: “Education is the key that (Q10)____________________ the door to your future.” I want all girls around the world to be able to unlock that door.(Q11) __________________, millions of young girls will enter the jobs market. As they do so, they have the potential not just to lift themselves, their families and their countries (Q12)____________, but also to grow the global economy, create new markets and find solutions to shared challenges that we all face. Yet without education, that (Q13)____________________ potential will not be realized - and all our futures will be all the poorer for it.So, improving access to education is not only the right thing to do, it is also at the heart of the UK’s drive to (Q14)_____________________, improve stability and (Q15)___________________ around the world. A more educated world is a better world for all of us, and the UK has long led the way in making it easier for girls around the globe to access 12 years of (Q16)_________________.Since 2015, we’ve helped at least 5.6 million girls in developing countries gain a (Q17)______________________, and this commitment will continue. Earlier this year, I pledged almost £400 million of UK Aid for the second phase of our Girls’ Education Challenge. This is a programme that is already supporting 1 million girls around the world to (Q18)____________________________________ through primary, secondary school and training. And it is also giving girls who have dropped out or never attended school (Q19)_____________________, motherhood, disability or conflict a chance to learn through catch-up classes and vital skills training.And phase two of the Challenge will see new projects that specifically target the most vulnerable and marginalised girls, including those with (Q20)____________________. And I’m pleased to announce today nine such projects, which will support more than 170,000 of the world’s most marginalised girls. This includes in Ethiopia, where we will fund counselling and mentoring to help girls (Q21)______________________________, and teacher training to help improve the quality of education. And that project will help over 70,000 girls access education, including up to 3,500 girls with disabilities.And (Q22)__________________, we will be funding projects that help girls affected by war - who are more than twice as likely to be out of school compared to (Q23)_______________ not living in conflict zones.And while our work is making an immeasurable difference to the lives of those it helps, to make sure no girls are left behind requires truly global co-ordinated action. Nations, donors, multinationals and other organisations working together to secure (Q24)_________________________ change.So we’ve launched a global campaign and we are pushing for commitments to girls’ education from (Q25)_____________________________ around the world. And we received many such commitments at April’s Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, at which leaders including Justin pledged to ensure that all girls and boys across the Commonwealth will be able to access 12 years of (Q26)______________________________ by 2030.Today, I am calling on everyone here to join our campaign. (To) Commit to the individual, collective and governmental action that’s needed to (Q27)_________________ barriers to girls’ education. To increase girls’ access to schools and learning. To ensure that every girl, in (Q28)______________________________________, can access the 12 years of education they need to (Q29)__________________________________, embrace the opportunities before them, and help change the world (Q30)__________________________.KEY Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Thank you. Thank you very much, indeed. And I’m (Q1)delighted to be here. And (Q2)first of all, can I say thank you to President Macron and…and Prime Minister Trudeau - Emmanuel and Justin - and (Q3)also thank you to the governments of Kenya, Niger and Jordan as co-hosts of this event with whom we are working to support girls’ education around the world.Today, over 130 million girls did not go to school. 130 million girls - most of them in the world’s poorest countries - did not have the opportunity to learn and develop the skills that most of us in this room (Q4)take for granted. 130 million girls did not (Q5)receive an education, without which their unique and almost unlimited potential will never be unlocked.By denying girls an education, we deny them a (Q6)voice, we deny them (Q7)choice, we deny them their (Q8)future.Now, I know I am extraordinarily grateful for the choices the education I had gave me. Growing up I (Q9)was blessed with good schools, a supportive learning environment, encouragement from my teachers and from my parents. And I have always said: “Education is the key that (Q10)unlocks the door to your future.” I want all girls around the world to be able to unlock that door.(Q11)Over the next decade, millions of young girls will enter the jobs market. As they do so, they have the potential not just to lift themselves, their families and their countries (Q12)out of poverty, but also to grow the global economy, create new markets and find solutions to shared challenges that we all face. Yet without education, that (Q13)incredible potential will not be realized - and all our futures will be all the poorer for it.So, improving access to education is not only the right thing to do, it is also at the heart of the UK’s drive to (Q14)boost economic growth, improve stability and (Q15)reduce conflict around the world. A more educated world is a better world for all of us, and the UK has long led the way in making it easier for girls around the globe to access 12 years of (Q16)quality education.Since 2015, we’ve helped at least 5.6 million girls in developing countries gain a (Q17)decent education, and this commitment will continue. Earlier this year, I pledged almost £400 million of UK Aid for the second phase of our Girls’ Education Challenge. This is a programme that is already supporting 1 million girls around the world to (Q18)continue their education through primary, secondary school and training. And it is also giving girls who have dropped out or never attended school (Q19)due to poverty, motherhood, disability or conflict a chance to learn through catch-up classes and vital skills training.And phase two of the Challenge will see new projects that specifically target the most vulnerable and marginalised girls, including those with (Q20)disabilities. And I’m pleased to announce today nine such projects, which will support more than 170,000 of the world’s most marginalised girls. This includes in Ethiopia, where we will fund counselling and mentoring to help girls (Q21)enrol and stay in school, and teacher training to help improve the quality of education. And that project will help over 70,000 girls access education, including up to 3,500 girls with disabilities.And (Q22)elsewhere, we will be funding projects that help girls affected by war - who are more than twice as likely to be out of school compared to (Q23)those not living in conflict zones.And while our work is making an immeasurable difference to the lives of those it helps, to make sure no girls are left behind requires truly global co-ordinated action. Nations, donors, multinationals and other organisations working together to secure (Q24)real and lasting change.So we’ve launched a global campaign and we are pushing for commitments to girls’ education from (Q25)governments around the world. And we received many such commitments at April’s Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, at which leaders including Justin pledged to ensure that all girls and boys across the Commonwealth will be able to access 12 years of (Q26)quality education and learning by 2030.Today, I am calling on everyone here to join our campaign. [To] Commit to the individual, collective and governmental action that’s needed to (Q27)break down barriers to girls’ education. To increase girls’ access to schools and learning. To ensure that every girl, in (Q28)every corner of the world, can access the 12 years of education they need to (Q29)unleash their potential, embrace the opportunities before them, and help change the world (Q30)for the better.

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