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怎样选择具体词汇

在外语教学网往期推荐的微课中,有不少涉及词汇的学习技巧:有的讲的是形容词的“升级”,有的梳理了英语词汇的历史起源,有的介绍了前缀与后缀……英语词汇丰富庞杂,每年诞生很多新兴词汇,而又有一些词汇被人渐渐淡忘。与几乎一成不变的语法不同,词汇不停地发生着改变,关于词汇学习的话题和讨论层出不穷,也就不足为奇了。作为第二语言学习者来说,英语词汇最重要的是“量”:没有词汇量便听不懂、看不懂,说不好,写不出。“绝知此事要躬行”,当你的英语词汇量到达了一定的程度,却发现了新的问题:什么地方用什么词?用怎样的词汇短语才地道?说到底,这是如何选择和搭配具体词汇的问题,也就是“质”的问题。Specific words & General words“具体词”(specific words),与“概括词”(general words)相对。顾名思义,具体词指代具体的事物、动作、人等,通常承载着更多的信息,表现力也更强,概括词则常指代抽象概念和集合概念,含义更加宽泛和模糊。举个例子,teacup, doctor, rain等都是具体词,而occupation, thing, stuff等便是概括词。两者没有孰优孰劣之分,在不同的场合和语境中有着不同的优势,因此在日常对话中也总是共同存在。具体词在英语学习中发挥的作用主要体现在写作上。使用具体的词汇使得表达的意思更加具体和准确,产生更加形象生动的效果。那么如何使用具体词汇才能给英语写作锦上添花呢?今天我们就通过微课《怎样选择具体词汇》一窥究竟吧!

英语写作中的雷区:垂悬修饰语

在开始我们今天的微课前,大家先来看看这两句话:Reaching the station, the sun came out.Walking down Main Street, the trees were beautiful.以上这两句话有语法上的错误吗?若是让一名英语学习者来做个评判,很可能发现不了问题,甚至会觉得它们“断句合理,朗朗上口”。殊不知,这两句都犯了“垂悬修饰”之讹。作为英语写作中经常出现的一类语法错误,“Dangling modifier”常常不知不觉出现在学生的习作之中,那么它到底错在哪里?又应该如何避免,躲开这块雷区呢?垂悬结构回到上文中的例句。若是按照常理,它们应被理解为“走近车站,太阳出来了”以及“沿着大马路走,行道树十分漂亮”。可是,分句中的修饰语没有与我们想要关联的对象联系起来。以上两句中,作者在分句中都是修饰了人“走”的动作,但后半句中的主语却分别是太阳和树木,逻辑关系混乱,而这恰是由于修饰语无法与主句的主语构成逻辑关系,这种逻辑错误会给句子的理解带来不必要的笑话或麻烦。同样的一句话,其实可以被理解成“太阳走近车站,出来了”。由此可见,“垂悬修饰”的得名,是因为它只是“悬”在了那儿,没有与其它成分产生联系,形成主语一致,因而造成了病句。独立结构与垂悬修饰形成相对的是“独立结构”。独立结构中的非限定分句,被称为独立分句(或简单分句),语义上不依附句中任何成分,因此我们容易将它和垂悬结构混淆。它们的区别是,垂悬修饰短语是试图修饰一个特定的名词,却错误地修饰了另一个名词,而独立结构是一个独立的分句,不试图修饰任何名词。如"The referee having finally arrived, the game began. "便将两个主语分清楚,不会造成歧义。“独立结构”适用于语义不依附于彼此的分句,那么对于主语一致的句子,应该如何处理才能把“不安分”的垂悬结构给稳定住?今天为大家带来的微课 Dangling Modifiers as a Common Writing Error 就将全面梳理垂悬出现的各类情形,并逐个击破,敬请收看!

2019年值得期待的科学突破

Science changes the world. As 2019 just unveils its calendar, what should we expect in science and what scientific breakthroughs will reshape our life? Nature, one of the most recognizable scientific journals in the world, recently forecast a list of cutting-edge research projects, that will promisingly change the world in the coming year.科学改变世界。2019年伊始,科学界有什么值得期待的新发现会改变我们生活的轨迹?顶级科学期刊《自然》最近列出了当下最前沿的研究项目,它们或许会在接下来的一年斩获突破,为我们的认知带来巨变。Polar Projects极地科考 In January, US and UK researchers will descend on Antarctica to begin their largest joint mission to the continent in more than 70 years. The aim of the five-year project is to understand whether the remote and seemingly unstable Thwaites Glacier will start to collapse in the next few decades. Later in 2019, European scientists plan to start drilling into the ice sheet on Antarctica’s glacier in a quest to recover a 1.5-million-year-old ice core. If they’re successful, the core will yield the oldest pristine record of climate and atmospheric conditions.在本月,英美两国的研究人员即将登上南极洲,开启70多年来两国合作规模最大的一次南极科考。该项目耗时五年,试图弄清状态并不稳定的“思怀兹冰川”是否会在接下来的几十年中发生崩塌。在19年末,欧洲科学家也将在南极冰川的冰盖上进行勘探,探索埋藏于地下的一块150多万年历史的冰核,如果成功了,或许就能揭晓史前地球气候环境的奥秘。Human Origins人类起源More fossils illuminating the origins of ancient hominin species could emerge from islands in southeast Asia — a region of intense interest since archaeologists discovered a human-like ‘hobbit’ species on an Indonesian island called Flores in 2003. Ongoing digs could reveal more about the first human inhabitants of the Philippine island of Luzon, including whether their isolation led to a diminutive stature, similar to what seems to have occurred on Flores.东南亚岛屿上即将出土更多的史前人类化石——这里因在2003年印尼弗洛勒斯岛发掘出类似“霍比特人”的人类化石而声名大噪,而在菲律宾吕宋岛上的新发现或许能揭开人类更多的起源奥秘,包括他们的与世隔绝是否导致了身材矮小,是不是与弗洛勒斯岛发生的情况相似。Collider Crunch强子对撞机It could be a make-or-break year for plans to build a successor to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Physicists in Japan proposed hosting the roughly US$7 billion International Linear Collider (ILC) in 2012, after scientists at the LHC in Geneva, Switzerland, announced the discovery of the Higgs boson. The ILC would study the Higgs in detail. But a 2018 report commissioned by the Japanese government failed to support the project, citing its cost. Japan is the only country that has shown interest in hosting the ILC, and the government is expected to issue a statement on whether it will do so by 7 March.2019年是决定强子对撞机(LHC)是否建造的关键一年。2012年,科学家于瑞士日内瓦宣布发现希格斯玻色子之后,日本物理学家提出要缔造约70亿美元的国际直线对撞机(ILC),用来深度研究该粒子。但在2018年,日本政府宣布因为耗资巨大将无力承担该项目。日本是世界上唯一对其展现出研究兴趣的国家,今年的3月7日前,日本政府将发布最终评估报告,决定是否将出资建造。Gene-Editing Fallouot基因编辑风波Geneticists will continue to deal with the repercussions of 2018’s claim by He Jiankui to have helped produce the world’s first gene-edited babies. Following an international outcry, scientists will attempt to uncover any potential side effects of the process, and create a framework to ensure that any future efforts to edit heritable human DNA that happen in a responsible and regulated way.基因科学家将继续针对2018年贺建奎主导的基因编辑婴儿事件进行进一步审查和研究。在该项目引发了全球科学界的质疑后,科学家将研究实验过程中是否产生了不利后果,并将建立新的研究机制,确保任何对人类基因进行编辑的实验将在负责和合规的框架内进行。Climate Tinkering气候变化的补救措施As carbon emissions continue to rise, 2019 could see the first experiments that are explicitly aimed at understanding how to artificially cool the planet using a practice called solar geoengineering. Scientists hope to spray 100-gram plumes of chalk-like particles into the stratosphere to observe how they disperse. Such particles could eventually cool the planet by reflecting some of the Sun’s rays back into space. Geoengineering sceptics worry that the practice could have unintended consequences and distract from efforts to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions.随着碳排放量日益增长,今年科学家将进行一项从无先例的实验:先向平流层喷洒100克类似白垩的微粒构成的烟流,并观察它们是如何扩散的,这样的微粒将部分的阳光反射回太空,最终让地球降温。地球工程师怀疑论者担心,这种做法可能产生无心之失,引发的后果将把大众的注意力从降低温室气体排放量的努力中转移走。Vocabularypristine: adj. 太古的,原始的diminutive: adj. 特小的stratosphere: n. 平流层

第八届教学大赛二等奖季佳平授课

“路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索。”★参赛感言★2009年夏天,我怀揣梦想来到南通师范高等专科学校,成为一名英语教师。初为人师的我,时刻铭记着“坚苦自立,忠实不欺”的校训,丝毫不敢懈怠。然而,教学之路并非一马平川。执教之初我便发现高职学生生性好动、乐于学习,但他们的英语语言能力相对较低。怎样让他们善学、善思、善用呢?所幸在我执教的这所老师范院校里我找到了答案——教在学生疑难处、教在知识重点处、教在学力潜能处。“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛已经举办了八届,我先后参加了第四届和第八届比赛。两次比赛对于我来说是难得的锻炼,我收获的不仅是先进的教育理念、积极的创新思维和优化的教学方法,更是触动心灵的感悟。以这次全国决赛为例,我抽到的是“Edge kidsand influencers”这篇文章。拿到题目的两天中,我查阅了国内外大大小小的网站,但一无所获。可想而知,组委会这样做不仅是为了比赛的公平,更是为了考验选手的实力。两周的备赛时间,既艰苦又煎熬。其间,我冥思苦想、不断修改、反复演练,最终我否定了前几稿内容,决定基于主题,从edge kids和influencers的定义、重要性、必要性和价值出发,优化教学设计。这样环环相扣的阅读任务不仅能让学生吃透文本,更能让他们在忠于原文却高于原文的基础上顺利完成最后的写作练习,以形成“以读促写,以写带读”的良性循环。然而非常遗憾的是,决赛时的紧张氛围让我在教学过程中语言缺乏逻辑性和准确性,未能取得理想的教学效果。正如李力教授在颁奖典礼上所言:“英语教师不仅要有扎实的语言基本功,更需要有良好的语言素养。”这番话让我为之一震,意识到这是我需要努力前进的方向。通过这次教学大赛,我领略了大赛评委老师们的渊博学识,见识了同行们的精湛技艺,感受到了校领导和同事们的关心与帮助,更明白了教学的任重道远。最后我希望自己能像一缕阳光一样,为孩子们驱散黑暗、照亮前程。我相信有爱就有光,有光就有一切。愿我的一份坚守能陪伴着他们在未来的人生路上走得更好、更远。授课点评专家:李富森教授季佳平老师授课选文的标题是 “Edge kids and influencers”。总体来说,季老师教态自然、有亲和力,教学理念明确、思路清晰,教学任务安排合理。具体而言,有以下特点:1.教学基本功扎实,具有良好的语言表达能力及较强的英语课堂教学设计能力,能较好地激发学生学习语言的积极性和主动性。比如在课程导入环节,季老师选取时尚、新颖的图片,有助于启发学生积极思考,引出主题及教学目标。2.教学目标明确:如语言目标、能力目标和情感目标。教学思路清晰,教学任务安排合理,对课文布局及语言知识的讲解详细,能较好地把握重点、难点的讲授。例如,以 statement、example、restatement为主线进行文章结构分析,并通过撰写书信引导学生总结所学知识,引导有效,设计巧妙。3.各教学步骤的时间分配及活动安排较好地体现了以学生为中心的教学理念。教学方法得当,采用任务型教学与分组讨论相结合的方式,有效帮助学生理解学习材料,有利于培养学生的语言综合运用能力,从而提高学生的思辨能力、思考能力和分析能力。例如,季老师通过下定义的方式学习关键词、使用学生熟悉的 WIFI式关系图表述关键词之间的关系。4.教态自然、活泼,有感染力,善于营造良好的课堂氛围,整个授课过程清晰、流畅。和说课相比,季老师在授课环节的教态平稳了许多,能有效调动学生的学习积极性。在评委提问环节,季老师对问题的回答正确、合理,应变能力较强。不足之处是,季老师英文表达虽然清晰流畅,但是个别单词的发音应克服一些造成发音不够标准的习惯,例如 spread、name、one、people、word等词中元音的发音需要再准确一些。

第八届教学大赛一等奖冯伟授课

“Success is not defined by how high you climb but by how high you bounce when you hit the bottom.”★参赛感言★第八届“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛是我第三次参加这一比赛。2011年我参加了第二届大赛,并获得了国赛的第七名;2016年我参加了第七届大赛江苏省的复赛和决赛,并获得了省赛第一名,遗憾的是当年没有举办职业院校组的国赛。为了能够再次参加国赛,我于今年参加了第八届大赛,终于了却了自己的一个心愿。我之所以一而再、再而三地参赛,一方面是因为对第一次参加国赛的成绩不是很满意,但更重要的原因是从第一次参赛起我就认识到教学大赛确实能够提升我们对英语教学的理解,促进教师职业生涯的发展。教学大赛为我们提供了尝试创新的平台和契机,而创新是消除职业倦怠感、保持对教学的激情、维系课堂生命的纽带。我觉得教学大赛的意义并不是教师们要在教学技艺上分个高低,而是通过参赛积极反思自己的教学,不断寻求教学设计、教学策略、教学方法等方面的自我突破和超越。尤其是对于在高职院校从事公共英语教学的老师们来说,面对生源素质的逐年下降和公共英语教学逐步被边缘化的窘境,很容易产生倦怠感和疲劳感,丧失对教学的热情,而大赛就如一针强心剂,能够唤醒、激发我们的潜能,帮我们找回、延续那种愉悦和激情。例如,今年我参加省赛时,被分配的现场授课课文是一篇小故事,大意是讲主人公在利物浦车站下车,前往青年旅社,于途中迷路后通过问路到达目的地的故事。故事内容简单,情节单调,在日常的教学中我们往往想不到或没有动力去探求出彩的教学设计。但在比赛的驱动之下,我想到了根据课文内容画出两个线路图,课堂上让学习者读故事的同时逐步在地图中标出roundabout、 traffic lights等地标,然后勾选出正确的线路图,最后再让学习者参照地图练习与问路和指路相关的交际用语。这一教学设计不同于常规的阅读教学,学习者要将对课文中文字的理解转化为生动、具体的图画内容,是一种能够充分调动学生积极主动参与的、有效的阅读教学策略,在比赛时得到了评委们的一致认同和肯定。试想如果没有教学大赛,我也许不可能有灵感和精力去尝试这种教学设计。最后,感谢外教社为我们英语教师提供了这样一个切磋技艺、碰撞思想、启发思考、激励创新的平台。祝愿大赛永葆生机和活力,祝愿更多的英语教师能通过参赛找到属于自己的那份愉悦和激情。授课点评专家:董剑桥教授作为外语老师,冯伟老师的语言基本功扎实,教师素养颇佳。冯老师与学生沟通有耐心,能掌握节奏、注意引导,其教态从容自然,能张弛有度、即兴应答,比较接近平时的教学状态。冯伟老师课授的特点是:有深度、有创意,教学设计比较合理;紧扣课题导入课堂活动;通过听写填空,自然过渡到课文内容的讲解;通过问题回答(trademark),巧妙转入组合词归类分析,并带出课文中的生词释义。整个讲解过程中穿插了学生的活动,一气呵成,十分流畅,无生硬之感。只是,年份游戏的设计虽然能活跃气氛,却并没有超出识记回忆的层次,且与既定教学目标相关性不大。总体来讲,冯老师的课是一堂很好的“公开课”,如果在以下几个方面能进一步推敲琢磨,相信一定会更上一层楼:1.教学设计与时间安排。较之于45分钟的常规课授,20分钟的竞赛型课授花了5分40秒时间导入,显然不够经济。原以为冯老师单刀直入,从课文题目切入问答,直接开讲。没料到,一番互动后, PPT播出教学五步骤,这才又正式进入 opening up,谈起了personal hero,为导而导的匠心立显,但却拖泥带水了。程式化教学套路对教师的制约之强,由此可见一斑。其实,在问过“Who is Red Adair?”“What troubles did he shoot?”“How extraordinary is his job?”等问题后,如直接进入听写填空,留出时间让学生带着问题快速浏览文本,那么随后的所有教学活动就有了认知的逻辑起点。现在的设计还是有引君入瓮的套路之嫌,学生并没有获得学习的主动权。2.教材审读与教学处理。作为介绍性传记类文本,该语篇文字流畅、结构完整、层次清晰、可读性较好。但是,文章删改的痕迹还是很明显,个别地方甚至略有瑕疵。如倒数第二段的“ In March of 1991, Red Adair went to Kuwait to put out about 700 Kuwaiti fires following the Persian Gulf War.”,经查证原文,扑灭科威特 700处油井火灾并不只是 Red Adair公司一家所为,而是来自 16个国家的 27支油田火灾救援队共同努力的结果,是以原文有 “helped prevent ...”一说。(专家提问时曾对 “prevent”一词敏感,这恰恰是文脉逻辑问题所致的“不适”。)问题是冯老师所选的一段听写正是来自原文,按说对原文并非一无所知,可见教材审读还稍欠火候,内容处理不够细致也就在所难免了。3.语言点选择与教法设计。冯老师选择 compound words作为教学重点应该说是有一定的深度和价值的,但是考虑到学生的接受程度,似可以有更好的方法:即如何巧用已知推演未知。如 troubleshooter是生词,但 troublemaker却是熟词;同样,讲解 deadline的构词时,可让学生说出用 line合成的词,如 online、offline、outline、lifeline等等;再如,可列出 ice cream、dinner table、living room让学生在文中找类似的组合词oil well、oil rig、gas leak等;给出 notebook、superman等让学生找出 trademark、Hollywood、hellfighter、birthday等等,然后再请学生比较哪些合成词的语义与原词素相关,哪些则已面目全非,这比越俎代庖的概念灌输和机械记忆更能调动学生。至于加不加连字符,这可能取决于使用频率、约定俗成或是否便于识记(如 mother-in-law),若简单归类,则容易误导。合成词的语义透明度是一个相当专业的学术问题,点到为止即可。应告诉学生合成词的语义并非总是一目了然,应该勤查词典,不可望文生义,这恰恰是学习方法的指点。顺便说一下, deadline一开始确实是“死亡之线”, extra-ordinary是超乎寻常的意思, extra不是very,而是 beyond的意思。

练习 | AP News一分钟新闻:“时代周刊” 揭晓年度人物

燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is AP News Minute.Time magazine has named 4 journalists and a newspaper as its 2018 "Person of the Year" for standing up for the truth in the face of persecution and violence. The group, which Time calls "the guardians" includes slain Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.President Donald Trump meets Tuesday at the White House with presumptive House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Democratic Senate leader Chuck Schumer as they try to avoid a partial government shutdown amid a dispute over Trump's promised border wall.Cities across the southeast are still digging out from the massive snowstorm that hit the region Sunday. Many schools are closed for a second day. Thousands are still without power.A 102-year-old woman from Australia has broken the record for the oldest skydiver in the world when she jumped from 14,000 feet Sunday to raise money for motor neuron disease.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201812/573319.shtmlVOCABULARY1. persecute v. persecute sb. (for sth.) to treat sb. in a cruel and unfair way, especially because of their race, religion or political beliefs (因种族、宗教或政治信仰)迫害,残害,压迫。例如: Throughout history, people have been persecuted for their religious beliefs. 人们因宗教信仰而受迫害的情况贯穿了整个历史。2. presumptive adj. (常用于名词前) (technical 术语) likely to be true, based on the facts that are available 很可能的;假设的;推断的3. skydiving n. (不可数名词) a sport in which you jump from a plane and fall for as long as you safely can before opening your parachute 延缓张伞跳伞运动;特技跳伞运动。例如:to go skydiving进行特技跳伞 (派生词) skydiver做空中造型动作的跳伞运动员QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is AP News Minute.Time magazine has named 4 journalists and a newspaper as its 2018 "Person of the Year" for standing up for the (Q1) _______________ in the face of (Q2) ___________________________. The group, which Time calls "the guardians" includes slain Saudi (Q3) ________________ Jamal Khashoggi.President Donald Trump meets Tuesday at the White House with presumptive House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Democratic Senate leader Chuck Schumer as they try to avoid a partial government (Q4) __________________ amid a (Q5) ____________________ over Trump's promised border wall.Cities across the southeast are still digging out from the massive (Q6) ________________ that hit the region Sunday. Many schools are closed for a second day. Thousands are still (Q7) ______________.A 102-year-old (Q8) ____________________ from Australia has broken the record for the oldest (Q9) ________________________ in the world when she jumped from 14,000 feet Sunday to (Q10) ___________________________ for motor neuron disease.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is AP News Minute.Time magazine has named 4 journalists and a newspaper as its 2018 "Person of the Year" for standing up for the (Q1) truth in the face of (Q2) persecution and violence. The group, which Time calls "the guardians" includes slain Saudi (Q3) journalist Jamal Khashoggi.President Donald Trump meets Tuesday at the White House with presumptive House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Democratic Senate leader Chuck Schumer as they try to avoid a partial government (Q4) shutdown amid a (Q5) dispute over Trump's promised border wall.Cities across the southeast are still digging out from the massive (Q6) snowstorm that hit the region Sunday. Many schools are closed for a second day. Thousands are still (Q7) without power.A 102-year-old (Q8) woman from Australia has broken the record for the oldest (Q9) skydiver in the world when she jumped from 14,000 feet Sunday to (Q10) raise money for motor neuron disease.

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:疼痛预期会影响疼痛体验

燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Getting a vaccine can be a painful experience, especially when you're a kid. But getting told the shot might "hurt a bit" could actually make it worse."We know that expectation affects pain experience in adults. But we don't really know whether this is also true for children."Kalina Michalska, a developmental neuroscientist at the University of California, Riverside. She led a study to find out.The study included 25 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder. Because medical procedures make pretty much all kids anxious... and those who are anxious to start with tend to find the experience even more painful.The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forearm of each participant. And they asked subjects to rate the temperature in terms of discomfort. The hottest setting was about the temperature of very warm tap water - uncomfortable, perhaps, but not damaging."But during the experiment, we were most interested in only one temperature: the one that each subject rated as medium."That's where the "anticipation" part of the experiment comes in. Subjects were played one of two tones. "One tone meant that low heat was coming; the other meant that high heat was upcoming." But here's the sneaky part. No matter what tone was played, participants got the same heat applied - the one rated as "medium." "So even though the subject heard a cue indicating high pain or low pain, the pain was only medium."Or at least that's how it should have felt. But what happened was that subjects reported feeling what they thought they would."If we tell them through this tone that they're going to experience a lot of pain, they'll actually experience more pain: they rated the pain as higher. And conversely, if we tell them that they will experience only low pain, they also rate their experiences as less painful.""This is really important because it kind of reinforces the necessity of not hyping up painful experiences. And also discouraging children from ramping up the experience in their head."And the same, it seems, goes for the grownups."One aspect surprised us, was that all three groups experienced a similar relationship between pain expectation and pain experience. We expected the strongest correlation among anxious children. But however all three groups showed a very large effect of expectancy on their experience of pain."The research is in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine.Next up, Michalska says she'd like to examine whether negative associations can be unlearned. So next time you need a shot, remember: if you think it won't be so bad, maybe it won't be.Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201812/571827.shtmlVOCABULARY1. neuroscience n. (不可数名词) the science that deals with the structure and function of the brain and the nervous system 神经科学 (派生词) neuroscientist神经科学家2. wand n. any object in the shape of a straight thin stick 棍;棒;杆;杖。例如:a mascara wand睫毛膏棒3. hype up: 煽动; 使兴奋。例如:To hype someone up means to deliberately make them very excited about something. 例如:Everyone at school used to hype each other up about men all the time. 过去在学校大家经常相互煽动彼此对男人的兴趣。4. rampe sth. up: to make sth. increase in amount使…的数量增加QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (✔) or false (✘) statements. 1. Getting a vaccine can be a painful experience, especially when you're a kid. 2. The study included 27 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder. 3. The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forehead of each participant. 4. The sneaky part is no matter what tone was played, participants got the different heat applied. 5. One aspect, all three groups experienced a similar relationship between pain expectation and pain experience, surprised us. 6. Next time you need a shot, if you think it won't be so bad, maybe it won't be. 7. Expectation affects pain experience. This is true for both adults and children.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (✔) or false (✘) statements.✔ 1. Getting a vaccine can be a painful experience, especially when you're a kid.✘ 2. The study included 27 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder. (正确表达) The study included 25 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder.✘ 3. The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forehead of each participant. (正确表达) The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forearm of each participant.✘ 4. The sneaky part is no matter what tone was played, participants got the different heat applied. (正确表达) The sneaky part is no matter what tone was played, participants got the same heat applied.✔ 5. One aspect, all three groups experienced a similar relationship between pain expectation and pain experience, surprised us.✔ 6. Next time you need a shot, if you think it won't be so bad, maybe it won't be.✔ 7. Expectation affects pain experience. This is true for both adults and children.

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