小编推荐

Bamboo-Structured Language vs Tree-Structured Language

竹与树,放在自然界是再普通不过的事物,可你是否想过,它们与语言学也能扯上关系?在语言学中,中英两种语言常借“竹形语言”和“树形语言”加以比较,那么为什么它们会被冠以竹树之分,这之中又有什么意义和来头呢?先来看看竹子和树木之间有什么区别:竹子挺拔修长,四季青翠,傲雪凌霜,最显著的特点就是“节状”结构,一节节往上堆叠生长,观感整齐。树木,尤指乔木,有着高大的树干,与之相连的树冠则呈现多级分叉的树枝,树枝之上长有叶片,通过光合作用为全树提供源源不断的能量。由此看来,竹与树之间的结构有着显著且本质的差异:竹子始终一贯,逐级而上,树木则是从属分明,有主有副。语言学家发现,中文的句法结构类似竹子,成分与成分之间相对独立,有时可以互换,通过语义相连;英文的句法结构则形似树木,句子成分通过从属等级进行划分,如同一棵大树一样,呈现树形结构。 看个例子,在古典名著《红楼梦》中,有这样一段文字:“晴雯先接出来,笑道:‘好啊,叫我研了墨,早起高兴,只写了三个字,扔下笔就走了,哄我等了这一天,快来给我写完了这些墨才算呢!’”不难发现,寥寥数笔却有十几个动词,句子看似杂乱,读起来却有轻盈灵动之感,这种竹形结构体现出了中文特有的爽快利落,但意味深远的特色。再看英文中的树形结构,选文来自狄更斯的《雾都孤儿》:“Among other public buildings in a certain town, which for many reasons it will be prudent to refrain from mentioning, and to which I will assign no fictitious name, there is one anciently common to most towns, great or small: to wit, a workhouse; and in this workhouse was born; on a day…”这才节选了第一句话的一半,可是句中已经勾勒了复杂的从属关系:在某个小镇中的建筑中、种种原因还是不说为好、“我”连假名也不取一个、和大多数小镇一样,无论大大小小…英语通过丰富的介词、短语和从句结构,将词汇编织成精美的信息网,分析一下便可发现,从属分明,将成分分解,便能呈现出树形的结构。接下来,我们就来继续探究中英文竹形结构和树形结构的差异,从而扩展到中英翻译中的知识要点,敬请收看本期微课Bamboo-Structured Language vs Tree-Structured Language。

小满天逐热,温风沐麦圆

Xiaoman, or Small Grain, is the second solar term for summer after Lixia, or Summer Begins, when wheat starts to growin north China. Xiaoman usually occurs on May 20-22 when the sun's elliptical longitude reaches 60° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 75°. This yearit falls on May 21.小满是夏季第二个节气,紧随立夏之后。此时,北方的小麦开始逐渐成熟。小满节气通常在每年的5月20日至22日之间,太阳到达黄经60度时便进入小满节气,在越过75度时便告结束。今年的小满是5月21日。 A Chinese proverb describes the days after Xiaoman as the “three periods of waitings” — waiting for sow thistle to prosper, waiting for fine grass in strong sunshine, and waiting for wheat to mature.中国古代有一句谚语概括了小满时节的“三候”,分别是“第一候苦菜秀,第二候靡草死,第三候麦秋至”,说的是小麦未熟民众只能以苦菜饱腹,喜阴的靡草逐渐衰败而绿草开始繁茂,以及麦子逐渐成熟,虽是夏季,却进入了它成熟的“秋”。 There was a tradition of eating seasonal wild vegetables including sow thistle during Xiaoman when crops are yet to mature. Though it may sound like a helpless choice, the tradition actually benefits people as the wild vegetables contain rich vitamins and mineral substance.由于小满时节庄稼尚未完全成熟,因此民间有着吃时令野菜的传统,其中包括苦菜。尽管这听起来像是个无奈之选,但事实上苦菜的维生素和矿物质含量丰富,有利于身体健康。The arrival of Xiaoman also marks the important period for transplanting rice seedlings, harvesting the rapeseeds,and taking care of the silkworms about to cocoon in south China.小满的到来在农耕社会中还有很多指示意义——此时的水稻要开始移栽了,田间的油菜籽可以收获了,在南方,家蚕开始织茧,养蚕人进入了一年中最忙碌的时分。The Amazing Cultural Heritage of Solar Terms非物质文化遗产——二十四节气A solar term is any of 24 points in traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon. The points are spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic and are used by lunisolar calendars to stay synchronized with the seasons, which is crucial for agrarian societies. The solar terms are also used to calculate intercalary months in East Asian calendars; which month is repeated depends on the position of the sun at the time.节气指的是东亚地区传统阴阳历中的24个特定节令,二十四节气与特定的天体活动相对应,代表某些自然现象。每个节气的划分分别相应于地球在黄道上每运动15°所到达的一定位置,并与其所属的季节时分相对应,对农耕社会的运作有着关键的指示意义。二十四节气在东亚流行的农历中还可以用来计算闰月。 Solar terms originated in China, then spread to Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, countries in the East Asian cultural sphere. Although each term was named based on the seasonal changes of climate in North China Plain, peoples living in the different climates still use it with no changes. On December 1, 2016, 24 solar terms were listed as UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage.二十四节气起源于中国,随后传至韩国、越南、日本等东亚文化圈内各国。尽管节气对应的气候特征是依据华北平原而制定的,但是不同地区的人们在参考节气时仍然沿用统一的名称。在2016年12月1日,联合国教科文组织正式将二十四节气列入非物质文化遗产名录。Vocabularysow thistle: 苦苣菜seedling: n. 秧苗rapeseed: n. 油菜籽lunisolar calendar: 阴阳历agrarian: adj. 农业的

台风季来临

The eighth typhoon of this year, Maria, hit Fujian province on July 11th. For Southerners at the coastal area, this is just the start of the typhoon season. However, whether you are a Southerner or a Northerner, how much do you know about typhoon, and could you tell the difference between a hurricane and a typhoon?今年第八号台风“玛利亚”已于7月11日在福建省登陆。对于居住在沿海地区的南方人来说,今年的台风季才刚刚开始。然而,无论你是一名北方人还是南方人,对于台风你究竟知道多少呢?飓风和台风,你又能分的清楚么?01Hurricanes and typhoons are the same weather phenomenon:tropical cyclones. A tropical cyclone is a generic term used by meteorologists to describe a rotating, organized system of clouds and thunderstorms that originates over tropical or subtropical waters and has closed low-level circulation.飓风和台风其实是同一种天气现象:热带气旋。气象学家对于“热带气旋”一词的定义是,发生在热带、亚热带地区海面上的气旋性环流,具有结构紧密,近地的特点。The weakest tropical cyclones are called tropical depressions. If a depression intensifies such that its maximum sustained winds reach 62 km per hour, the tropical cyclone becomes a tropical storm. Once a tropical cyclone reaches maximum sustained winds of 119 km per hour or higher, it is then classified as a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone, depending upon where the storm originates in the world. In the North Atlantic, central North Pacific, and eastern North Pacific, the term hurricane is used. The same type of disturbance in the Northwest Pacific is called a typhoon. Meanwhile, in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean, the generic term tropical cyclone is used, regardless of the strength of the wind associated with the weather system.热带气旋中强度最弱的被称为热带低压,如果它的强度加强,最高持续风速达到了62千米/时,便升级为热带风暴;若是达到119千米/时以上,根据不同的活动地区,可分为飓风、台风或热带气旋三种类别。在北大西洋,北太平洋中部和西部地区,被称为飓风;同样的风暴在太平洋西北部则被称为台风;而在南太平洋和印度洋地区,无论气旋的大小和强度是多少,都被称为“热带气旋”。02The ingredients for tropical cyclones include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds. If the right conditions persist long enough, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods we associate with this phenomenon. At times, when a weather system does not meet all of these conditions, but is forecast to bring tropical storm or hurricane force winds to land in the next day or two, it is called a potential tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin and the central and eastern North Pacific basins.热带气旋的构成要素包括现有的气象扰动,温暖的热带洋面,潮湿的空气和相对静稳的大气。如果这些适宜气旋生成的条件持续维持,那么气旋就会生成并不断加强,最终以狂风巨浪,倾盆大雨的面貌示人。有时,热带气旋即便没有成型,但预计也会给陆地带来了大风大雨,那么在大西洋和东北太平洋区域被称为是潜在的热带气旋。In the Northern Hemisphere, both hurricane season and typhoon season officially run from June 1 to November 30. Ninety-seven percent of tropical cyclone activity occurs during this time period. However, there is nothing magical about these dates. Hurricanes and typhoons can and do occur outside of this six month period.在北半球,飓风季和台风季大致都从6月1日开始,到11月30日结束。大约97%的热带气旋都会在这段时间内生成并活动。然而,除了这六个月之外,飓风和台风仍然会生成并登陆。03In terms of name sources, typhoons and hurricanes differ in some ways.The list of typhoon names consists of entries from 17 Southeast and East Asian nations and the United States who have territories directly affected by typhoons. The submitted names are arranged into five lists, and each list is cycled with each year. Unlike tropical cyclones in other parts of the world, typhoons are not named after people. Instead, they generally refer to animals, flowers, astrological signs, and a few personal names.就命名来说,飓风和台风的命名规则不尽相同。台风的命名由来自东南亚和东亚,以及部分领土也受到台风影响的美国等17个国家和地区共同确定。各地提交的台风命名被分为五张表,然后按顺序年复一年地循环重复使用。世界其它地区的热带气旋通常是以人名命名的,而台风的命名则充满了好的寓意,根据动物,花卉,气候现象和少量的人名进行命名。VOCABULARYcyclone: n. 气旋generic: adj. 一类的;一般的meteorologist: n. 气象学家torrential: n. 汹涌的;猛烈的

第八届教学大赛二等奖秦雅芬说课

“要让学生超越老师,就要把发现、探索和思考的权利交给学生。”★参赛感言★作为一名执教仅仅一年的青年教师,能够参加我国规模最大、层次最高、影响最广的全国性外语教学专项比赛是我的荣幸。我是怀着向其他优秀英语教师学习的心情参加这次教学比赛的。从江西分赛区的复赛和决赛到全国决赛和总决赛,一次次的进步让我充满信心,并让我更加坚信:作为青年教师,一定要敢于尝试,敢于突破,敢于挑战!为期近半年的比赛已经结束一个月了,这次比赛让我受益匪浅,感慨万千。下面,我将谈谈自己的参赛感受。首先,“合抱之木,生于毫末。九层之台,起于累土”。如果教师平时的积累不够,想要在比赛时发挥出色是很难的。所以,作为一名教师,需要不断积累知识,保持终身学习。平时备课时,我会在网上广泛地查找各类资料,以求丰富课堂。而这次全国比赛中,我用的一段乔布斯在斯坦福大学的演讲视频,“Stay hungry,stay foolish”,就是我平时备课时积累下来的资料。我在全国比赛中抽到的文章标题是“There’s a lot more to life than a job”。对于高职学生来说,这篇文章比较难懂,因为文中有一些比较抽象的概念,比如:“… education teaches us to see the connections between things,and to see beyond our immediate needs.”。学生读到这句话的时候可能会感到疑惑,see the connections between things和see beyond our immediate needs是什么意思?connections between things是什么和什么的联系?immediate needs是指哪些需求?对于这些疑惑,我该如何用有趣的方法去解答呢?此时,我想到了乔布斯的这段演讲。他说他当年学习了书法,虽然当时并没有想过有一天会将其运用到工作中去,但十年之后,他将书法运用到了设计苹果电脑的字体中去,创造了当时电子产品中最美的字体。这段演讲完美地诠释了see the connections between things(乔布斯看到了书法和设计苹果电脑软件之间的联系),也诠释了see beyond our immediate needs(告诉同学们不能目光短浅,应该像乔布斯一样有远见)。有人说,学生要一杯水,教师要有一桶水。而在学习资源如此丰富的今天,仅仅是一桶水已经无法满足学生,教师要像一条湍流不息的大河,不断地积累各方面的知识,才能成为优秀的教师。其次,“一人难挑千斤担,众人能移万座山”。从四月份学校的初赛,到江西分赛区的复赛,再到全国的总决赛,外国语学院的领导和同事们都给了我极大的支持和鼓励。领导们一次次地帮我组织、安排学生配课,和同事们一起,一遍遍地帮我打磨课程、修改课程。正是因为领导和同事们的帮助,才让我呈现出一堂精心设计的课程,才让我有前行的信心。从省赛到全国比赛,一路走来,我观摩了全国最优秀的教师们的精彩授课和说课,收到了全国最权威的评委们的点评,这些都激励着我在英语教学中不断努力,不断寻求创新和突破!说课点评专家:邵红万教授秦雅芬老师说课语言流畅,思路清晰,目标明确,措施得当。其说课选文的标题为 “The real cost of travel”,说课包含教学对象、文本分析和教案三部分。她的说课有三大亮点,一是选择一年级旅游管理专业高职生作为特定教学对象开展教学设计,将英语学习与高职学生的专业相结合,服务于学生的专业发展。二是注重对语言知识的讲解(这一点常常被参赛选手忽视),既注重对 tourism、tourism industry、habitants、 ecotourism等旅游专业词汇的学习,又从语言学层面对 effect & impact、took off & growing & booming等近义词进行辨析,并通过翻译练习强化其用法。三是除对选文进行先总后分的深入分析之外,还引导学生关注选文标题的“低价航空游给环境造成严重污染”和“旅游业发展以污染环境为代价”的双重含义。美中不足的是,说课的教学设计与授课的教学设计如出一辙,有程式化之嫌,缺乏新意(这也是大多数参赛选手的通病)。在回答问题环节,对第一个问题,秦老师准确理解问题要点,回答基本正确。她认为世界屋脊珠穆朗玛峰都未能免受污染,可见旅游给环境造成的污染何等严重。第二个问题针对 problem—solution结构,作者一般会更加关注问题所带来的影响还是解决途径?对此秦老师未做解释,只说如果她是作者会更加关注问题所带来的影响。她认为本文作者对问题所带来的影响与解决途径都给予了重视。尽管两个问题秦老师的回答基本正确,但没能很好地 keep to the point,表述不够简明扼要。

第八届教学大赛二等奖刘颖说课

“每一次经历都是生活给予的宝贵经验,是成长的必然。”★参赛感言★对于初登讲台两年的我来说,有幸参加“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛是一次难得的锻炼,是一次宝贵的经历,更是一次痛并快乐着的成长。从校内选拔赛到北京赛区的决赛和总决赛,我怀着“初生牛犊”的精神,一路走来还算顺利,并且幸运地获得了参加全国决赛的机会。然而,随着比赛的推进,我越来越多地发现了自己的问题和不足。对于抽到的文本如何处理?准备做成什么课?亮点在哪儿?活动和课堂怎么组织?在20分钟内如何有效、有趣地调动完全陌生的学生?这些问题都让我寝食不安。同时,我也发现年轻的我在很多方面都还非常稚嫩,不论是对于职业英语职业性的把握,对英语语言本身的理解和感悟,还是对于高职英语课堂的掌控和组织。好在,我身后有一个温暖的集体,不论是北京电子科技职业学院和基础学院外语教学部的领导、同事们,还是北京市大学英语研究会高职分会的专家们,都给了我很多帮助、鼓励和支持,让我有勇气去更大的舞台上展示自己,向更多的优秀教师学习。在此,我要向他们表示衷心的感谢!准备和参加全国决赛是值得我铭记的经历。紧张的三天赛程,我看到了其他省、市、地区的高职英语教师们的风采。他们的钻研、专注、创新、热情和专业,他们对于学生、教材和课堂的掌控值得我不断模仿、学习。而在比赛过程中,专家评委们犀利的提问和精准的点评都让我记忆犹新。犹记颁奖典礼上李力教授对所有英语教师提出的两点建议:一是要不断地提高自己的英语素养;二是要跳出固定思维、不断创新。这两点对我来说真是振聋发聩。虽刚登上讲台不久,但在备赛的过程中我依然感觉到自己陷入了某种“固定模式”的怪圈,不想或不敢去创新。可是只有当一个老师的思想、观念、知识一直是新鲜的,她的课堂才是充满活力和吸引力的。此外,作为一名英语老师,听说读写等英语语言能力不是问题,然而语言素养是否到位却是我之前没有做过太多思考的问题。要成为一名合格的英语老师,提升自己的专业水平和职业素养,一刻也不可懈怠。最后,十分感谢上海外语教育出版社给外语教师提供这样的机会和平台,让我们可以和全国各地的同行交流,相互学习,共同探讨高职英语教学规律、交流教学经验。衷心祝福“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛越办越好!说课点评专家:王海啸教授刘颖老师的说课给我的第一个感觉就是中规中矩。刘老师一开始对课文的结构和内容进行了简单的分析。在接下来的教学安排中,刘老师对课型、教学对象、教学目标、教学重、难点和教学方法等做了介绍。然后便是具体的教学步骤,即课前、课中和课后的教学安排。具体而言,刘老师在确定教学目标时沿用了她在授课时运用的框架,从 knowledge,skills和value这三个方面确定教学目标。虽然框架是一样的,但这些教学目标与所教课文的语言和内容还是有直接关系的。在教学步骤的设计中,刘老师能够根据学生的特点和课文主题选择相关的补充视频等学习材料,并使用网络教学 APP,如Quizlet、蓝墨云班课等辅助师生交流和检测。课内学习从词汇复习,到通过快速阅读理解课文主旨,再到细节的理解和关键语法结构的学习,最后再到口头和笔头产出。这样的安排无论在教学节奏,还是在内部逻辑关系上,都是比较合理的,有助于学生进行有效的语言学习。从刘老师所举的重点词汇和语法结构的例子,以及她在后面问答阶段的表现看,刘老师对课文还是有比较好的理解的,能够发现课文的语言特点,并根据这些特点组织教学。刘老师为本课设计的课后作业不是一个普通的口笔头练习,而是让学生做一个与环保宣传有关的 poster。这不但要求学生阅读大量的材料,而且还要能够对所阅读的材料进行归纳总结,制作一个具有很好视觉效果的 poster,在后续的展示阶段还要能够根据 poster上的关键词语向其他同学介绍相关内容。这样的作业既能够引起学生的学习兴趣,又能够帮助学生培养综合语言应用能力。总体而言,刘老师这样中规中矩的说课安排的优点在于面面俱到,而缺点则在于缺乏创新。这样的套路几乎可以运用于所有课文的处理。另外,刘老师在说课开始时将本节课定性为泛读教学,但在确定教学难点时强调了学生在语言产出时的困难,这似乎让人有些费解,因为产出技能的培养不应该是泛读教学关注的主要内容。在教学方法运用上,刘老师说要运用 production-oriented approach,但从她所介绍的教学步骤好像很难看出是如何体现 production-oriented approach的理念与做法的。

练习 | FOX新闻:如何培养自信的孩子

FOX新闻:如何培养自信的孩子燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTFox on Family. When my daughter turned 10, I noticed insecurity creeping in. And just telling her she's awesome and to ignore the haters, doesn't seem to help: "This generation doesn't do as you say, they only do as you do."So the advice from mother-of-four and author of 'Happiest Mom on the Block,' Katerina Mayants, is to be the change you want to see in your children by working on yourself: "And you start to raise your own voice and make it louder than the voices that are coming-of advice, of criticism-from people around you, that's when you're bulletproof."She says then the whole family can focus on living the best life they can: "Instead of constantly being plagued by stresses and anxieties and all of the things that come when we're trying to impress everybody else outside of the home."Spending less time on social media can help with confidence. And let your kids know you face similar challenges with criticism in life, but that your own opinion is what really matters. Show them how to move on.With FOX on Family, I'm Lisa Brady.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201807/560228.shtml VOCABULARY1. creep in to: begin to happen or affect sth 开始发生(或影响)。例如:As she became more tired, errors began to creep into her work. 由于越来越疲劳,她的工作开始出现差错。2. bulletproof adj. that can stop bullets from passing through it 防弹的。例如:a bulletproof vest防弹背心 QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (✔) or false (✘) statements.( ) 1. When my daughter turned 10, I noticed insecurity creeping in.( ) 2. Just telling my daughter that she's awesome and to ignore the haters, does seem to help a little.( ) 3. This generation doesn't do as you do, they only do as you say.( ) 4. Katerina Mayants suggests us to be the change you want to see in your children by working on yourself.( ) 5. Katerina Mayants says the whole family can focus on living the best life they can.( ) 6. Spending less time on social media cannot help with raising your children’s confidence.( ) 7. Let your kids know that their own opinion is what really matters. KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (✔) or false (✘) statements.(✔) 1. When my daughter turned 10, I noticed insecurity creeping in.(✘) 2. Just telling my daughter that she's awesome and to ignore the haters, does seem to help a little.正确表达:Just telling my daughter that she's awesome and to ignore the haters, doesn't seem to help.(✘) 3. This generation doesn't do as you do, they only do as you say. 正确表达:This generation doesn't do as you say, they only do as you do.(✔) 4. Katerina Mayants suggests us to be the change you want to see in your children by working on yourself.(✔) 5. Katerina Mayants says the whole family can focus on living the best life they can.(✘) 6. Spending less time on social media cannot help with raising your children’s confidence. 正确表达:Spending less time on social media can help with raising your children’s confidence.(✔) 7. Let your kids know that their own opinion is what really matters.

练习 | BBC新闻:谷歌面临欧盟史上最大罚单

BBC新闻:谷歌面临欧盟史上最大罚单燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTGoogle is to hear shortly whether it's to face a record fine in Europe over its Android operating system. The European Commission has said that the US tech giant's mobile device strategy unfairly strengthened its internet search service. Susan Rob is a barrister in London who specializes in EU law. The commission can fine up to ten percent of worldwide turnover. In practice, fines rarely reached that level, but it's expected that this will be a significant fine and comparable to the fine that was imposed on Google in another case involving alleged abuse of dominance around its search and shopping sites. I think what is really interesting though will be what kind of corrective measures the commission might impose.World news from the BBC.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201807/559754.shtml VOCABULARY1. strengthen n. to become stronger; to make sb / sth stronger 加强;增强;巩固[单独使用的动词] 例如: Her position in the party has strengthened in recent weeks. 最近几个星期以来,她在党内的地位有所增强。 Yesterday the pound strengthened against the dollar. 昨天,英镑对美元的汇率上升了。 The wind had strengthened overnight. 夜里,风更大了。[动词 + 名词短语] 例如: Repairs are necessary to strengthen the bridge. 这座桥需要加固。 The exercises are designed to strengthen your stomach muscles. 这些活动目的在于增强你的腹部肌肉。 The move is clearly intended to strengthen the President's position as head of state. 这一举措显然意在加强总统作为国家元首的地位。2. barrister n. a lawyer in Britain who has the right to argue cases in the higher courts of law 出庭律师,大律师,辩护律师(在英国有资格出席上级法庭进行辩护)3. turnover n. [可数名词, 常用单数形式, 不可数名词] turnover (of sth) the total amount of goods or services sold by a company during a particular period of time (一定时期内的)营业额,成交量。例如: an annual turnover of $75 million 7500万元的年营业额 a fall in turnover营业额的下降4. abuse n. [不可数名词, 单数] abuse (of sth) the use of sth in a way that is wrong or harmful 滥用;妄用5. corrective measures n. 纠正措施 QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Google is to hear shortly whether it's to face (Q1) ___________________________ in Europe over its Android (Q2) __________________________. The European Commission has said that the US tech giant's (Q3) ______________________________________________ unfairly strengthened its (Q4) _____________________. Susan Rob is a (Q5) __________________ in London who specializes in EU law. The commission can fine up to (Q6) ___________________ of worldwide turnover. In practice, fines rarely reached that level, but it's expected that this will be a significant fine and comparable to the fine that was imposed on Google in another case involving alleged abuse of (Q7) ___________________________ around its (Q8) _____________________ sites. I think what is really interesting though will be what kind of (Q9) ______________________________ the commission might (Q10) _________________________.World news from the BBC. KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Google is to hear shortly whether it's to face (Q1) a record fine in Europe over its Android (Q2) operating system. The European Commission has said that the US tech giant's (Q3) mobile device strategy unfairly strengthened its (Q4) internet search service. Susan Rob is a (Q5) barrister in London who specializes in EU law. The commission can fine up to (Q6) ten percent of worldwide turnover. In practice, fines rarely reached that level, but it's expected that this will be a significant fine and comparable to the fine that was imposed on Google in another case involving alleged abuse of (Q7) dominance around its (Q8) search and shopping sites. I think what is really interesting though will be what kind of (Q9) corrective measures the commission might (Q10) impose.World news from the BBC.

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