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欧盟将禁止一次性塑料制品

The European Commission is proposing a ban on around 10 single-use plastic items that it says account for approximately 70 percent of all garbage in the European Union's waters and beaches, including cutlery, straws, cotton buds, plates, some coffee cups, and stirrers.欧洲委员会近日起草了一份针对一次性塑料制品的禁令,包括塑料刀叉、吸管、棉签、餐盘、部分咖啡杯、搅拌棒等,而这些塑料据称占据了欧盟水域和沙滩漂浮垃圾中的7成。The legislation is not just about banning plastic products. It also wants to make plastic producers bear the cost of waste management and cleanup efforts, and it proposes that EU states must collect 90% of single-use plastic bottles by 2025 through new recycling programs.这项法令不仅仅是简单的“禁塑”,它还要求塑料厂商承担起塑料废物处理和清理的相关责任,法令还提议欧盟国家在2025年前通过新的垃圾循环计划,对90%的一次性塑料瓶进行回收再利用。The European Commission estimates that these rules, once fully implemented in 2030, could cost businesses over €3 billion per year. But they could also save consumers about €6.5 billion per year, create 30,000 jobs, and avoid €22 billion in environmental damage and cleanup costs. In all, the new legislation is beneficial for the economy in the long run.欧委会预计这一系列新法规将在2030年全面执行,可能造成企业每年30亿欧元的亏损。但与此同时,新法规每年能为消费者节约65亿欧元的支出,创造3万多个就业机会,减少220亿欧元的环保支出。所以总的来说,这项新法规在经济层面上是利大于弊的。Currently, the plastic reuse rate is frankly embarrassing compared to other products. While just 14 percent of all plastic used globally is collected for recycling, the rate for paper is 58 percent and the rate for iron and steel is around 90 percent. Scientists have concluded that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, an area of the ocean where huge amounts of discarded plastic items eventually end up, has now grown to at least 87,000 tons of marine wildlife-killing waste.当前,塑料的再利用率比起其他材料要低得多。全世界只有14%的塑料得到了回收利用,而纸制品则达到了58%,钢铁的回收率更达到了90%。科学家目前得出结论,由洋流将海洋垃圾汇集在一起的“大太平洋垃圾带”,规模已经达到了惊人的8万7千吨以上,对海洋生物造成了严重的威胁。The ban doesn't mean that consumers in the EU will suddenly be unable to get these items; instead, products like plastic forks and knives with "readily available alternatives" would be replaced with products made from more environmentally friendly materials like bioplastics.这项禁令并不意味着欧盟的消费者会突然间买不到上述产品。相反,像塑料刀叉这种已经有“现成替代品”的产品将会被更多环境友好型的材料取代,例如可以轻松降解的生物塑料。"Europeans need to act together to tackle this problem," EU vice president Frans Timmermans said. "Today's proposals will reduce single use plastics on our supermarket shelves through a range of measures. We will ban some of these items, and substitute them with cleaner alternatives so people can still use their favourite products."欧盟委员会副主席Frans Timmermans说道,“欧洲需要携起手来共同应对塑料问题。今天的提议将通过一系列举措减少市场上流通的一次性塑料制品,我们在下达禁令的同时,也将用更加环保的材料进行替代,确保消费者能够继续使用他们喜爱的产品。”Vocabularycutlery: n. 刀叉stirrer: n. 搅拌器;搅拌棒bioplastic: n. 生物塑料

故宫博物院

The Palace Museum in Beijing, or the Forbidden City, has received more than 100 million visitors since January 2012, according to the museum.首都北京的故宫博物院,也就是我们所熟知的紫禁城,据馆方的消息说,自2012年1月以来已经突破了1亿的累计客流。To avoid overcrowding during peak season, the museum has allowed a maximum of 80,000 visitors per day since June 2015, compared with more than 100,000 or even 180,000 visitors per day previously.为了避免在旅游旺季出现人挤人的情形,博物院自2015年6月起开始实行每天限流8万人的政策。而在政策实施前,故宫动辄就会出现超10万甚至18万的日客流。Controlling visitor numbers is aimed at protecting both the cultural relics and visitors. The museum will further improve its management and conduct a pilot scheme of selling different amounts of tickets at different periods during the day in 2019.实施限流不仅是为了保护文物,同时也是为了保障游客的人身安全。博物院还将在2019年加强管理,试行分时段售票政策。As a renowned world cultural heritage site and home to priceless art works and artefacts, the Palace Museum is a must-see for tourists and saw a record high of 16.7 million visitors in 2017.作为世界著名的文化遗产,故宫拥有无数的艺术珍宝和历史遗存,是来京游客的必到景点,曾在2017年创下1670万人的最高年客流记录。Meanwhile, the Palace Museum has been making every effort to repair the palace complex with a view to open more sections to the public. Back to 2015, when the Forbidden City celebrated its 90th anniversary, four new sections were unveiled, including the palace that housed the emperor's mother, making 65 percent of the complex accessible to the public. It is estimated that before 2020, more than 85% of the whole area will be ready to open to the public.与此同时,故宫博物院一直在不遗余力地修缮、开放新区域。在2015年,为了迎接故宫90周年院庆,四大未曾开放的区域整修后亮相世人,其中包括了慈禧的寝宫,使得整个故宫开放的区域达到了65%。此外官方预计在2020年前,故宫的开放区域能扩大到85%。Located in the heart of Beijing, the Palace Museum was home to emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties. After the revolution of 1911, which ended the reign of the Qing Dynasty, the last emperor, Puyi, didn’t leave the palace until 1924, when he was expelled.位于北京中心位置的故宫博物院曾经是明清两朝的皇宫。1911年辛亥革命推翻了清王朝后,末代皇帝溥仪仍居留在此,直至1924年被逐出皇宫。Over the following years, many treasures were lost due to social unrest. Lacking of proper maintenance further exacerbated the worsening condition of the old palace. In the next several decades, the museum has been taking great efforts to renovate and recover the huge complex. It is a year-long and difficult project to restore more than 9,000 rooms taking 72 hectares.接踵而至的社会动荡让故宫的文物大量流失,日常维护的缺失更使得故宫的状况日益恶化。随后的几十年中,馆方耗费了大量的精力对这一庞大的皇宫进行修缮,但修复这片占地72公顷,拥有9000多间房间的建筑群仍是一项漫长而艰难的工程。Nowadays, the Palace Museum faces new problems such as protection and large number of visitors. Since January 2014, the museum has been closed to public every Monday for renovation and maintenance work. Visitors are suggested to book tickets online in advance.如今,故宫博物院除了修缮外,还面临着高客流量和随之带来的安全问题。自2014年1月起,故宫每周一闭馆,进行集中修缮和维护。游客也被建议提前在网上购票。VOCABULARYpilot scheme: 试点方案artefact:n. 制品,人工产物exacerbate:v. 恶化;加重

小满天逐热,温风沐麦圆

Xiaoman, or Small Grain, is the second solar term for summer after Lixia, or Summer Begins, when wheat starts to growin north China. Xiaoman usually occurs on May 20-22 when the sun's elliptical longitude reaches 60° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 75°. This yearit falls on May 21.小满是夏季第二个节气,紧随立夏之后。此时,北方的小麦开始逐渐成熟。小满节气通常在每年的5月20日至22日之间,太阳到达黄经60度时便进入小满节气,在越过75度时便告结束。今年的小满是5月21日。 A Chinese proverb describes the days after Xiaoman as the “three periods of waitings” — waiting for sow thistle to prosper, waiting for fine grass in strong sunshine, and waiting for wheat to mature.中国古代有一句谚语概括了小满时节的“三候”,分别是“第一候苦菜秀,第二候靡草死,第三候麦秋至”,说的是小麦未熟民众只能以苦菜饱腹,喜阴的靡草逐渐衰败而绿草开始繁茂,以及麦子逐渐成熟,虽是夏季,却进入了它成熟的“秋”。 There was a tradition of eating seasonal wild vegetables including sow thistle during Xiaoman when crops are yet to mature. Though it may sound like a helpless choice, the tradition actually benefits people as the wild vegetables contain rich vitamins and mineral substance.由于小满时节庄稼尚未完全成熟,因此民间有着吃时令野菜的传统,其中包括苦菜。尽管这听起来像是个无奈之选,但事实上苦菜的维生素和矿物质含量丰富,有利于身体健康。The arrival of Xiaoman also marks the important period for transplanting rice seedlings, harvesting the rapeseeds,and taking care of the silkworms about to cocoon in south China.小满的到来在农耕社会中还有很多指示意义——此时的水稻要开始移栽了,田间的油菜籽可以收获了,在南方,家蚕开始织茧,养蚕人进入了一年中最忙碌的时分。The Amazing Cultural Heritage of Solar Terms非物质文化遗产——二十四节气A solar term is any of 24 points in traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon. The points are spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic and are used by lunisolar calendars to stay synchronized with the seasons, which is crucial for agrarian societies. The solar terms are also used to calculate intercalary months in East Asian calendars; which month is repeated depends on the position of the sun at the time.节气指的是东亚地区传统阴阳历中的24个特定节令,二十四节气与特定的天体活动相对应,代表某些自然现象。每个节气的划分分别相应于地球在黄道上每运动15°所到达的一定位置,并与其所属的季节时分相对应,对农耕社会的运作有着关键的指示意义。二十四节气在东亚流行的农历中还可以用来计算闰月。 Solar terms originated in China, then spread to Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, countries in the East Asian cultural sphere. Although each term was named based on the seasonal changes of climate in North China Plain, peoples living in the different climates still use it with no changes. On December 1, 2016, 24 solar terms were listed as UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage.二十四节气起源于中国,随后传至韩国、越南、日本等东亚文化圈内各国。尽管节气对应的气候特征是依据华北平原而制定的,但是不同地区的人们在参考节气时仍然沿用统一的名称。在2016年12月1日,联合国教科文组织正式将二十四节气列入非物质文化遗产名录。Vocabularysow thistle: 苦苣菜seedling: n. 秧苗rapeseed: n. 油菜籽lunisolar calendar: 阴阳历agrarian: adj. 农业的

第八届教学大赛二等奖秦雅芬说课

“要让学生超越老师,就要把发现、探索和思考的权利交给学生。”★参赛感言★作为一名执教仅仅一年的青年教师,能够参加我国规模最大、层次最高、影响最广的全国性外语教学专项比赛是我的荣幸。我是怀着向其他优秀英语教师学习的心情参加这次教学比赛的。从江西分赛区的复赛和决赛到全国决赛和总决赛,一次次的进步让我充满信心,并让我更加坚信:作为青年教师,一定要敢于尝试,敢于突破,敢于挑战!为期近半年的比赛已经结束一个月了,这次比赛让我受益匪浅,感慨万千。下面,我将谈谈自己的参赛感受。首先,“合抱之木,生于毫末。九层之台,起于累土”。如果教师平时的积累不够,想要在比赛时发挥出色是很难的。所以,作为一名教师,需要不断积累知识,保持终身学习。平时备课时,我会在网上广泛地查找各类资料,以求丰富课堂。而这次全国比赛中,我用的一段乔布斯在斯坦福大学的演讲视频,“Stay hungry,stay foolish”,就是我平时备课时积累下来的资料。我在全国比赛中抽到的文章标题是“There’s a lot more to life than a job”。对于高职学生来说,这篇文章比较难懂,因为文中有一些比较抽象的概念,比如:“… education teaches us to see the connections between things,and to see beyond our immediate needs.”。学生读到这句话的时候可能会感到疑惑,see the connections between things和see beyond our immediate needs是什么意思?connections between things是什么和什么的联系?immediate needs是指哪些需求?对于这些疑惑,我该如何用有趣的方法去解答呢?此时,我想到了乔布斯的这段演讲。他说他当年学习了书法,虽然当时并没有想过有一天会将其运用到工作中去,但十年之后,他将书法运用到了设计苹果电脑的字体中去,创造了当时电子产品中最美的字体。这段演讲完美地诠释了see the connections between things(乔布斯看到了书法和设计苹果电脑软件之间的联系),也诠释了see beyond our immediate needs(告诉同学们不能目光短浅,应该像乔布斯一样有远见)。有人说,学生要一杯水,教师要有一桶水。而在学习资源如此丰富的今天,仅仅是一桶水已经无法满足学生,教师要像一条湍流不息的大河,不断地积累各方面的知识,才能成为优秀的教师。其次,“一人难挑千斤担,众人能移万座山”。从四月份学校的初赛,到江西分赛区的复赛,再到全国的总决赛,外国语学院的领导和同事们都给了我极大的支持和鼓励。领导们一次次地帮我组织、安排学生配课,和同事们一起,一遍遍地帮我打磨课程、修改课程。正是因为领导和同事们的帮助,才让我呈现出一堂精心设计的课程,才让我有前行的信心。从省赛到全国比赛,一路走来,我观摩了全国最优秀的教师们的精彩授课和说课,收到了全国最权威的评委们的点评,这些都激励着我在英语教学中不断努力,不断寻求创新和突破!说课点评专家:邵红万教授秦雅芬老师说课语言流畅,思路清晰,目标明确,措施得当。其说课选文的标题为 “The real cost of travel”,说课包含教学对象、文本分析和教案三部分。她的说课有三大亮点,一是选择一年级旅游管理专业高职生作为特定教学对象开展教学设计,将英语学习与高职学生的专业相结合,服务于学生的专业发展。二是注重对语言知识的讲解(这一点常常被参赛选手忽视),既注重对 tourism、tourism industry、habitants、 ecotourism等旅游专业词汇的学习,又从语言学层面对 effect & impact、took off & growing & booming等近义词进行辨析,并通过翻译练习强化其用法。三是除对选文进行先总后分的深入分析之外,还引导学生关注选文标题的“低价航空游给环境造成严重污染”和“旅游业发展以污染环境为代价”的双重含义。美中不足的是,说课的教学设计与授课的教学设计如出一辙,有程式化之嫌,缺乏新意(这也是大多数参赛选手的通病)。在回答问题环节,对第一个问题,秦老师准确理解问题要点,回答基本正确。她认为世界屋脊珠穆朗玛峰都未能免受污染,可见旅游给环境造成的污染何等严重。第二个问题针对 problem—solution结构,作者一般会更加关注问题所带来的影响还是解决途径?对此秦老师未做解释,只说如果她是作者会更加关注问题所带来的影响。她认为本文作者对问题所带来的影响与解决途径都给予了重视。尽管两个问题秦老师的回答基本正确,但没能很好地 keep to the point,表述不够简明扼要。

第八届教学大赛一等奖冯伟授课

“Success is not defined by how high you climb but by how high you bounce when you hit the bottom.”★参赛感言★第八届“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛是我第三次参加这一比赛。2011年我参加了第二届大赛,并获得了国赛的第七名;2016年我参加了第七届大赛江苏省的复赛和决赛,并获得了省赛第一名,遗憾的是当年没有举办职业院校组的国赛。为了能够再次参加国赛,我于今年参加了第八届大赛,终于了却了自己的一个心愿。我之所以一而再、再而三地参赛,一方面是因为对第一次参加国赛的成绩不是很满意,但更重要的原因是从第一次参赛起我就认识到教学大赛确实能够提升我们对英语教学的理解,促进教师职业生涯的发展。教学大赛为我们提供了尝试创新的平台和契机,而创新是消除职业倦怠感、保持对教学的激情、维系课堂生命的纽带。我觉得教学大赛的意义并不是教师们要在教学技艺上分个高低,而是通过参赛积极反思自己的教学,不断寻求教学设计、教学策略、教学方法等方面的自我突破和超越。尤其是对于在高职院校从事公共英语教学的老师们来说,面对生源素质的逐年下降和公共英语教学逐步被边缘化的窘境,很容易产生倦怠感和疲劳感,丧失对教学的热情,而大赛就如一针强心剂,能够唤醒、激发我们的潜能,帮我们找回、延续那种愉悦和激情。例如,今年我参加省赛时,被分配的现场授课课文是一篇小故事,大意是讲主人公在利物浦车站下车,前往青年旅社,于途中迷路后通过问路到达目的地的故事。故事内容简单,情节单调,在日常的教学中我们往往想不到或没有动力去探求出彩的教学设计。但在比赛的驱动之下,我想到了根据课文内容画出两个线路图,课堂上让学习者读故事的同时逐步在地图中标出roundabout、 traffic lights等地标,然后勾选出正确的线路图,最后再让学习者参照地图练习与问路和指路相关的交际用语。这一教学设计不同于常规的阅读教学,学习者要将对课文中文字的理解转化为生动、具体的图画内容,是一种能够充分调动学生积极主动参与的、有效的阅读教学策略,在比赛时得到了评委们的一致认同和肯定。试想如果没有教学大赛,我也许不可能有灵感和精力去尝试这种教学设计。最后,感谢外教社为我们英语教师提供了这样一个切磋技艺、碰撞思想、启发思考、激励创新的平台。祝愿大赛永葆生机和活力,祝愿更多的英语教师能通过参赛找到属于自己的那份愉悦和激情。授课点评专家:董剑桥教授作为外语老师,冯伟老师的语言基本功扎实,教师素养颇佳。冯老师与学生沟通有耐心,能掌握节奏、注意引导,其教态从容自然,能张弛有度、即兴应答,比较接近平时的教学状态。冯伟老师课授的特点是:有深度、有创意,教学设计比较合理;紧扣课题导入课堂活动;通过听写填空,自然过渡到课文内容的讲解;通过问题回答(trademark),巧妙转入组合词归类分析,并带出课文中的生词释义。整个讲解过程中穿插了学生的活动,一气呵成,十分流畅,无生硬之感。只是,年份游戏的设计虽然能活跃气氛,却并没有超出识记回忆的层次,且与既定教学目标相关性不大。总体来讲,冯老师的课是一堂很好的“公开课”,如果在以下几个方面能进一步推敲琢磨,相信一定会更上一层楼:1.教学设计与时间安排。较之于45分钟的常规课授,20分钟的竞赛型课授花了5分40秒时间导入,显然不够经济。原以为冯老师单刀直入,从课文题目切入问答,直接开讲。没料到,一番互动后, PPT播出教学五步骤,这才又正式进入 opening up,谈起了personal hero,为导而导的匠心立显,但却拖泥带水了。程式化教学套路对教师的制约之强,由此可见一斑。其实,在问过“Who is Red Adair?”“What troubles did he shoot?”“How extraordinary is his job?”等问题后,如直接进入听写填空,留出时间让学生带着问题快速浏览文本,那么随后的所有教学活动就有了认知的逻辑起点。现在的设计还是有引君入瓮的套路之嫌,学生并没有获得学习的主动权。2.教材审读与教学处理。作为介绍性传记类文本,该语篇文字流畅、结构完整、层次清晰、可读性较好。但是,文章删改的痕迹还是很明显,个别地方甚至略有瑕疵。如倒数第二段的“ In March of 1991, Red Adair went to Kuwait to put out about 700 Kuwaiti fires following the Persian Gulf War.”,经查证原文,扑灭科威特 700处油井火灾并不只是 Red Adair公司一家所为,而是来自 16个国家的 27支油田火灾救援队共同努力的结果,是以原文有 “helped prevent ...”一说。(专家提问时曾对 “prevent”一词敏感,这恰恰是文脉逻辑问题所致的“不适”。)问题是冯老师所选的一段听写正是来自原文,按说对原文并非一无所知,可见教材审读还稍欠火候,内容处理不够细致也就在所难免了。3.语言点选择与教法设计。冯老师选择 compound words作为教学重点应该说是有一定的深度和价值的,但是考虑到学生的接受程度,似可以有更好的方法:即如何巧用已知推演未知。如 troubleshooter是生词,但 troublemaker却是熟词;同样,讲解 deadline的构词时,可让学生说出用 line合成的词,如 online、offline、outline、lifeline等等;再如,可列出 ice cream、dinner table、living room让学生在文中找类似的组合词oil well、oil rig、gas leak等;给出 notebook、superman等让学生找出 trademark、Hollywood、hellfighter、birthday等等,然后再请学生比较哪些合成词的语义与原词素相关,哪些则已面目全非,这比越俎代庖的概念灌输和机械记忆更能调动学生。至于加不加连字符,这可能取决于使用频率、约定俗成或是否便于识记(如 mother-in-law),若简单归类,则容易误导。合成词的语义透明度是一个相当专业的学术问题,点到为止即可。应告诉学生合成词的语义并非总是一目了然,应该勤查词典,不可望文生义,这恰恰是学习方法的指点。顺便说一下, deadline一开始确实是“死亡之线”, extra-ordinary是超乎寻常的意思, extra不是very,而是 beyond的意思。

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:蚊子能识别危险气味

科学美国人60秒:蚊子能识别危险气味燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for particular species or even certain individuals. At the same time, their tastes can change, depending on the circumstances. One species of skeeter in California, for example, has a fondness in summer for robins, but will settle for mammals once the birds head south for the winter.But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by nose - and by their intended victim's behavior. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the scent of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid individuals who try to swat them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.Researchers took female mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a human volunteer. The other contained a control solution of mineral oil. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed an obvious preference for eu d' Homo sapiens.Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to flee from the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to human odor with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their appetite for the previously attractive scent.That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in learning and memory in other insects.So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to avoid danger.Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for curbing the spread of diseases carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are slow learners (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat.Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201808/560139.shtmlVOCABULARY1. skeeter n. (North Amercian English, informal, humorous) = mosquito 蚊子2. robin n. a grey American bird with a red breast, larger than a European robin 旅鸫,美洲知更鸟(毛灰色,胸部红色,比欧亚鸲大)3. mammal n. any animal that gives birth to live babies, not eggs, and feeds its young on milk. Cows, humans and whales are all mammals. 哺乳动物4. olfactory adj. [只用于名词前] (technical 术语) connected with the sense of smell 嗅觉的。例如:olfactory cells / nerves / organs嗅觉细胞 / 神经 / 器官5. swat v. [动词 + 名词短语] to hit sth., especially an insect, using your hand or a flat object 拍,打(昆虫等)6. maze n. a system of paths separated by walls or hedges built in a park or garden, that is designed so that it is difficult to find your way through 迷宫。例如:We got lost in the maze. 我们在迷宫里迷失了方向。7. suffuse v. [动词 + 名词短语][常用被动态] suffuse sb./sth. (with sth.) (literary) (especially of a colour, light or feeling 尤指颜色、光线或感情) to spread all over or through sb. / sth. 布满;弥漫于;充满。例如:Her face was suffused with colour. 她满脸通红。8. aroma n. a pleasant, noticeable smell 芳香;香味。例如:the aroma of fresh coffee新鲜咖啡的香味9. akin to sth.: (formal) similar to 相似的;类似的。例如:What he felt was more akin to pity than love. 他感受到的更像怜悯,而不是爱。10. maneuver n. 策略11. neurotransmitter n. (biology 生) a chemical that carries messages from nerve cells to other nerve cells or muscles 神经递质(在神经细胞间或向肌肉传递信息)12. dopamine n. [不可数名词] a chemical produced by nerve cells which has an effect on other cells 多巴胺(神经细胞产生的一种作用于其他细胞的化学物质)13. molecular adj. 分子的14. curb v. [动词 + 名词短语] to control or limit sth., especially sth. bad 控制,抑制,限定,约束(不好的事物)。例如:He needs to learn to curb his temper. 他得学着控制自己的脾气。A range of policies have been introduced aimed at curbing inflation. 为了抑制通货膨胀实施了一系列的政策。15. dengue n. [不可数名词] a disease caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes , that is found in tropical areas and causes fever and severe pain in the joints 登革热(由蚊子传播的热带疾病,症状为发烧和关节剧痛)QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.1. When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for (Q1) ____________________________ or even (Q2) _____________________. At the same time, their (Q3) ______________ can change, depending on the (Q4) __________________.2. But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by (Q5) ____________ - and by (Q6) __________________________. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the (Q7) ___________ of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid (Q8) ________ who try to (Q9) ______ them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.3. Researchers took (Q10) ______________ mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a (Q11) _____________________ volunteer. The other contained a control solution of (Q12) _____________________. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed (Q13) ____________________ for eu d' Homo sapiens.4. Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to (Q14) _______________ the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to (Q15) _________________ with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their (Q16) ________________ for the previously attractive scent.5. That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in (Q17) __________________________ in other insects.6. So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to (Q18) ___________________________.7. Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for (Q19) __________________________________ carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are (Q20) ____________________ (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat. KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.1. When it comes to sucking blood, mosquitos can play favorites: they show preferences for (Q1) particular species or even (Q2) certain individuals. At the same time, their (Q3) tastes can change, depending on the (Q4) circumstances.2. But how do mosquitoes decide what's on the menu? And when to shift to something new? It appears that they play it by (Q5) nose - and by (Q6) their intended victim's behavior. Because a new study shows that mosquitoes not only memorize the (Q7) scent of their preferred host, they can use these olfactory cues to avoid (Q8) individuals who try to (Q9) swat them. The finding is in the journal Current Biology.3. Researchers took (Q10) female mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and loaded them one by one into a maze shaped like a Y. One arm of the Y was suffused with the scent of a (Q11) human volunteer. The other contained a control solution of (Q12) mineral oil. As predicted, the mosquitoes showed (Q13) an obvious preference for eu d' Homo sapiens.4. Next, the researchers attempted to train the mosquitoes to (Q14) flee from the heady aroma of humans. So they coupled the exposure to (Q15) human odor with a mechanical vibration - something akin to the shock that might accompany a near-miss by a swatting host. Sure enough, mosquitoes that were trained to associate human smells with their potentially deadly defensive maneuvers lost their (Q16) appetite for the previously attractive scent.5. That learning, the researchers found, is made possible by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This biological chemical has previously been shown to play a role when female mosquitoes seek someone to suck. And it's involved in (Q17) learning and memory in other insects.6. So the researchers used an array of molecular techniques to knock out the aegypti's ability to sense and respond to dopamine. And without this neurotransmitter, mosquitoes become much worse at learning to (Q18) avoid danger.7. Targeting mosquitoes' smarts could thus provide a new method for (Q19) curbing the spread of diseases carried by Aedis aegypti - like Zika, dengue, and yellow fever. Because mosquitoes that are (Q20) slow learners (swatting/slap noise) are easier to swat.

练习 | NPR新闻:特朗普联大演讲引哄笑

NPR新闻:特朗普联大演讲炫耀政绩兜售美国优先燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTPresident Trump took center stage at the United Nations today. At the annual gathering of the U.N. General Assembly, Trump addressed leaders from around the world and used the opportunity to complain about the way the rest of the world has treated the United States. NPR's Ayesha Rascoe reports.AYESHA RASCOE, BYLINE: President Trump did not say America first during his speech at the United Nations, but he didn't have to. His message was clear. His administration will look out for the needs of Americans first and foremost, and other governments should look out for their own people, too.(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP: We reject the ideology of globalism, and we embrace the doctrine of patriotism. Around the world, responsible nations must defend against threats to sovereignty not just from global governments but also from other new forms of coercion and domination.RASCOE: According to Trump, one nation that is not honoring other countries' sovereignty is Iran. Trump had very tough words for the Iranian regime, which he accused of sowing chaos and death.(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)TRUMP: They do not respect their neighbors or borders or the sovereign rights of nations. Instead, Iran's leaders plunder the nation's resources to enrich themselves and to spread mayhem across the Middle East and far beyond.RASCOE: Trump pulled the U.S. out of the Iran nuclear deal in May. He complained the deal didn't address Iran's development of ballistic missiles or its support for terrorism. In his speech, he asked all nations to join the U.S. in isolating Iran's regime, but it's unclear how many nations will heed Trump's call. France, Germany and the United Kingdom have pledged to continue to uphold the agreement despite the U.S. withdrawal. Trump also voiced his complaints about international trade and China in particular. He blames China for the loss of U.S. manufacturing jobs and factories.(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)TRUMP: But those days are over. We will no longer tolerate such abuse. We will not allow our workers to be victimized, our companies to be cheated and our wealth to be plundered and transferred.RASCOE: In many ways, the speech was an outline of grievances from Trump about the international community. Trump said the U.S. gives more in foreign aid than the rest of the world but gets little in return. From now on, he said, the U.S. will only give to nations that respect the U.S. Trump also said his government will not allow OPEC, the cartel of oil-producing countries, to continue to drive up oil prices.(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)TRUMP: OPEC and OPEC nations are as usual ripping off the rest of the world, and I don't like it. Nobody should like it.RASCOE: There was a lighter moment at the start of Trump's speech when he boasted about his tenure so far.(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)TRUMP: In less than two years, my administration has accomplished more than almost any administration in the history of our country. America's - so true.(LAUGHTER)RASCOE: That prompted laughter from the audience.(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)TRUMP: Didn't expect that reaction, but that's OK.(LAUGHTER)RASCOE: Trump began his remarks by saying the U.S. will not tell other countries how to live. In the end, though, he urged countries to embrace patriotism and independence. It will be up to those independent nations to decide whether they take his advice.Ayesha Rascoe, NPR News.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201809/566366.shtml VOCABULARY1. first and foremost: more than anything else 首要的是;首先。例如:He does a little teaching, but first and foremost he's a writer. 他干一点教学,但首要的是写作。2. doctrine n. [可数名词, 不可数名词] a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a Church, apolitical party, etc. 教义;主义;学说;信条。例如:the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty议会主权学说3. patriotism n. [不可数名词] love of your country and willingness to defend it 爱国主义;爱国精神4. sovereignty n. the state of being a country with freedom to govern itself 独立自主。例如:Thedeclaration proclaimed the full sovereignty of the republic. 这份宣言宣告这个共和国完全独立自主。5. coercion n. [不可数名词] (formal) the action of making sb. do sth. that they do not want to do, using force or threatening to use force 强迫;胁迫。例如:He claimed he had only acted under coercion. 他声称他只是受了胁迫才采取了行动。6. plunder v. to steal things from a place, especially using force during a time of war (尤指战乱时用武力)抢劫,掠夺。[单独使用的动词] 例如:The troops crossed the country, plundering and looting as they went.部队经过乡村,一路抢劫掳掠。[动词 + 名词短语] 例如:The abbey had been plundered of its valuables. 寺院的珍宝被洗劫一空。7. mayhem n. [不可数名词] confusion and fear, usually caused by violent behaviour or by some sudden shocking event 骚乱;慌乱。例如:There was absolute mayhem when everyone tried to get out at once. 众人蜂拥而出,造成了极大的混乱。8. ballistic n. connected with ballistics 弹道(学)的;发射的9. grievance n. grievance (against sb.) something that you think is unfair and that you complain or protest about 不平的事;委屈;抱怨;牢骚。例如: Parents were invited to air their grievances (= express them) at the meeting. 家长们应邀在会上诉说他们的苦衷。 He had been nursing a grievance against his boss for months. 他几个月来一直对老板心怀不满。 Does the company have a formal grievance procedure (= a way of telling sb. your complaints at work)? 公司有正式投诉程序吗? QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (ü) or false (û) statements. 1. At the annual gathering of the U.N. General Assembly, Trump addressed leaders from around the world and used the opportunity to complain about the way the rest of the world has treated the U.N. 2. President Trump say America first during his speech at the United Nations, and his message was clear. His administration will look out for the needs of Americans first and foremost, and other governments should look out for their own people. 3. Trump had very tough words for the Iraqi regime, which he accused of sowing chaos and death. 4. Trump pulled the U.S. out of the Iran nuclear deal in June. 5. Trump complained the deal didn't address Iran's development of ballistic missiles or its support for terrorism. 6. In his speech, he asked all E.U. nations to join the U.S. in isolating Iran's regime, but it's unclear how many nations will heed Trump's call. 7. France, Germany and the United Kingdom have pledged to continue to uphold the agreement despite the U.S. withdrawal. 8. Trump also voiced his complaints about international trade and China in particular. He blames China for the loss of U.S. manufacturing jobs and factories. 9. In many ways, the speech was an outline of grievances from Trump about the international community. 10. Trump said the U.S. gives more in foreign aid than the rest of the world but gets little in return. From now on, he said, the U.S. will only give to nations that respect the U.S. 11. Trump also said his government will not allow OPEC, the cartel of oil-producing countries, to continue to drive up oil prices. 12. There was a lighter moment at the start of Trump's speech when he boasted about his tenure so far. 13. Trump began his remarks by saying the U.S. will not tell other countries how to live. In the end, though, he urged countries to embrace globalism, patriotism and independence. KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (ü) or false (û) statements.û 1. At the annual gathering of the U.N. General Assembly, Trump addressed leaders from around the world and used the opportunity to complain about the way the rest of the world has treated the U.N. [正确表达] At the annual gathering of the U.N. General Assembly, Trump addressed leaders from around the world and used the opportunity to complain about the way the rest of the world has treated the United States.û 2. President Trump say America first during his speech at the United Nations, and his message was clear. His administration will look out for the needs of Americans first and foremost, and other governments should look out for their own people. [正确表达] President Trump did not say America first during his speech at the United Nations, but his message was clear. His administration will look out for the needs of Americans first and foremost, and other governments should look out for their own people.û 3. Trump had very tough words for the Iraqi regime, which he accused of sowing chaos and death. [正确表达] Trump had very tough words for the Iranian regime, which he accused of sowing chaos and death.û 4. Trump pulled the U.S. out of the Iran nuclear deal in June. [正确表达] Trump pulled the U.S. out of the Iran nuclear deal in May. 5. Trump complained the deal didn't address Iran's development of ballistic missiles or its support for terrorism.û 6. In his speech, he asked all E.U. nations to join the U.S. in isolating Iran's regime, but it's unclear how many nations will heed Trump's call. [正确表达] In his speech, he asked all nations to join the U.S. in isolating Iran's regime, but it's unclear how many nations will heed Trump's call.ü 7. France, Germany and the United Kingdom have pledged to continue to uphold the agreement despite the U.S. withdrawal.ü 8. Trump also voiced his complaints about international trade and China in particular. He blames China for the loss of U.S. manufacturing jobs and factories.ü 9. In many ways, the speech was an outline of grievances from Trump about the international community.ü 10. Trump said the U.S. gives more in foreign aid than the rest of the world but gets little in return. From now on, he said, the U.S. will only give to nations that respect the U.S.ü 11. Trump also said his government will not allow OPEC, the cartel of oil-producing countries, to continue to drive up oil prices.ü 12. There was a lighter moment at the start of Trump's speech when he boasted about his tenure so far.û 13. Trump began his remarks by saying the U.S. will not tell other countries how to live. In the end, though, he urged countries to embrace globalism, patriotism and independence. [正确表达] Trump began his remarks by saying the U.S. will not tell other countries how to live. In the end, though, he urged countries to embrace patriotism and independence.

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