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2018年最糟密码榜单出炉:123456蝉联榜首

Bad habits die hard, so do the bad passwords. After evaluating more than 5 million passwords leaked on the Internet, a company called Splashdata found that computer users continue using the same predictable, easily guessable passwords, according to their 2018 report. Using these passwords will put anyone at substantial risk of being hacked and having their identities stolen.坏习惯一旦养成便很难纠正,使用糟糕的密码亦是如此。在分析了超过500万条网络泄露的密码后,一家叫做Splashdata的互联网公司近日发布了2018年“最糟密码”榜单,数据表明人们仍然热衷于使用简单、易记的密码。这些密码在黑客面前毫无抵抗力,身份信息易被窃取。While terrible passwords such as “123456” and “password” continue in the No.1 and No.2 spots, respectively, Donald Trump debuted on this year’s list with “donald” showing up as the 23rd most frequently used password, as many users deem his name is so easy to remember, and appears all the time on media.“123456”和“password”依然稳居2018年榜单前两名。值得一提的是,今年的榜单上还出现了美国总统特朗普的“donald”,排名第二十三位,这或许与他极高的曝光率,名字又易被猜出有关。2018 Worst Passwords Top 102018年“糟糕”密码前十位1. 1234562. password3. 1234567894. 123456785. 123456. 1111117. 12345678. sunshine9. qwerty10. iloveyouUndoubtedly these passwords pose threats to information safety. Hackers have great success using celebrity names, terms from pop culture and sports, and simple keyboard patterns to break into accounts online because they know so many people are using those easy-to-remember combinations.毫无疑问,这些不动脑筋的密码对信息安全构成了巨大威胁。黑客使用名人的姓名、文化流行语、体育流行语,还有键盘上字母的简单排列,便能轻松入侵个人账户,因为他们知道,很多懒人都在用这些“弱智”密码。Even with the risks well known, many millions of people continue to use weak, easily-guessable passwords to protect their online information. 2018 was the fifth consecutive year that “123456” and “password” retained their top two spots on the list. The next five top passwords on the list are simply numerical strings.尽管很多人都知道使用简单密码存在风险,但仍有数百万人在使用这些“不堪一击”、容易记忆的密码。“123456”和“password”已经连续五年蝉联榜单冠亚军,跟在后面的五个密码也是换汤不换药,都是纯数字的简单排列。Tips for Password Safety密码安全小贴士1. Use passphrases of twelve characters or more with mixed types of characters.1. 密码要有一定长度,至少12位,且数字、字母、标点等混用。2. Use a different password for each of your logins. That way, if a hacker gets access to one of your passwords, they will not be able to use it to access other sites.2. 不同的网站尽量使用不同的密码。这样做的好处是即使黑客破解了一个密码,但其它网站的个人账户不会连带遭殃。3. Protect your assets and personal identity by using a password manager to organize passwords, generate secure random passwords, and automatically log into websites.3. 可以使用密码管理器软件管理密码,生成随机密码,并自动登入账号,以保护个人账户和身份信息。VOCABULARYsubstantial: adj. 重大的;结实的consecutive: adj. 连续的retain: v. 保持numerical: adj. 数字的

世界“最佳”图书馆巡礼

Libraries represent human's most successful attempt in distributing knowledge. In the modern age, these magnificent institutions have also developed into important social structures that facilitate not just the reading of books, but a meeting point of different people, different ideas, discussion and debate. Libraries are usually the epicenter of cultural activity in neighbourhood in which they are located. Here is a list of several of the best libraries in the world, ones that we wished we could spend whole days in, if only they were closer home.图书馆代表了人类分配知识的成功壮举。图书馆凝聚着智慧结晶,在现代社会它不仅仅是看书借书的地方,还拓展出了很多社会功能,不同观点的人在此思维碰撞,交流讨论。图书馆通常也是其所在社区文化活动的中心。今天我们就为大家介绍几所举世闻名的大型图书馆,若是它们开在家门口,我们或许就会成天泡在里面。纽约公共图书馆New York Public Library, New York City, USA纽约公共图书馆,纽约,美国The famous New York Public Library is awe inspiring in its layout, scope and size. It is the third largest library in North America, has over 50 million items in its collection. It consists of 87 libraries serving 3.5 million people. The Rose Main Reading Room is a treat for the eyes too. The Library special collections include the first Gutenberg Bible to come to America. It is one of the most recognizable libraries in the world due to its appearances in many Hollywood movies, and even a key setting in “The Day After Tomorrow” and “Ghostbusters”.大名鼎鼎的纽约公共图书馆在布局、规模和图书种类上都充满亮点。作为北美第三大图书馆,纽约公共图书馆拥有5000万件藏品;共有87间分馆,可为350万人提供服务,其中“玫瑰主阅览室”更是“网红”般的存在。图书馆的特藏中最负盛名的当属美国首部《古腾堡圣经》。纽约公共图书馆也是全世界辨识度最高的图书馆之一,因其在好莱坞大片中上镜率颇高,如电影《后天》和《超能敢死队》中的关键镜头都有它的身影。大英博物馆阅览室Reading Room at the British Museum, London, UK大英博物馆阅览室,伦敦,英国The Reading Room at the British Museum is found in the center of the Great Court of the British Museum. It features a domed roof, with the ceiling made of a variety of papier-maché. For much of the Room’s history, access was only granted to registered researches, and during this period many notable figures studied at the Library, including Karl Marx, Oscar Wilde, Mahatma Gandhi, Rudyard Kipling, George Orwell, Mark Twain, Lenin, and H.G. Wells. The Library’s collection was moved to the new British Library in 2000 and the Reading Room now houses an information center and a curated collection of books relating to history, art, travel and other subjects relevant to British Museum’s collections.大英博物馆阅览室位于大英博物馆大中庭的中央,采用穹顶设计,其天花板由多种混凝纸制成。历史上,只有注册过的研究人员才能进入,其中不乏一些举世闻名的学者在此学习、研究,包括卡尔·马克思(Karl Marx)、奥斯卡·王尔德(Oscar Wilde)、莫罕达斯·甘地(Mahatma Gandhi)、拉迪亚德·吉卜林(Rudyard Kipling)、乔治·奥威尔(George Orwell)、马克·吐温(Mark Twain)、列宁(Lenin)、H·G·威尔斯(H. G. Wells)等名人。图书馆的藏书在千禧年整体搬迁至大英图书馆新馆,修葺后的阅览室转变为一座信息中心,馆藏主要是与大英博物馆内藏品相关的历史、艺术、旅游等精选书籍。美国国会图书馆Library of Congress, Washington D.C., USA美国国会图书馆,华盛顿特区,美国The Library of Congress is effectively the national library of the United States and the oldest federal cultural institution in the US. The library consists of three different buildings and is the largest library in the world. The library is open to the public, but only members of congress and other important government officials may check out books. The library also serves an important function as the “library of last resort” in the US, ensuring the availability of certain items to various libraries around the United States. The holdings of the library are extremely impressive, they include - over 32 million books, more than 61 million manuscripts, a rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, a perfect vellum copy of the Gutenberg Bible (one of only four in the world), over 1 million newspapers from the last three centuries, over 5 million maps, 6 million pieces of sheet music, and more than 14 million photos and prints.国会图书馆是美国的国家图书馆,并且是全美最古老的联邦文化机构。图书馆由三座建筑组成,是全世界规模最大的图书馆。国会图书馆对公众开放,但只有国会成员和政府机构人员才能借阅书籍。该图书馆还是美国的“终极图书馆”,以保障全美的馆际互借服务顺畅运行。国会图书馆的馆藏极其丰富,包括3200多万册图书,6100多万份手稿,《独立宣言》的原稿,一部完整的牛皮纸《古腾堡圣经》(全世界只有四部),过去三个世纪印刷的超过100万份报纸,500多万张地图,600多万页乐谱,以及1400多万张照片和影印资料。亚历山大图书馆The Library of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt亚历山大图书馆,亚历山大城,埃及The Library of Alexandria was the greatest library in antiquity, and one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The new rebuilt Library of Alexandria hopes to one day match the precedent set by its illustrious predecessor. The Library cost $220 million to build and was completed in 2002. The Library doubles as a cultural center, and contains a planetarium, a manuscript restoration lab, art galleries and exhibition space, museums, a conference center, as well as libraries for children, young adults, and the blind. While the library contains space for over 8 million books, the library growing number of available titles currently stands at around 500,000.埃及的亚历山大图书馆曾经是世界上文物最多的图书馆,也是世界七大奇迹之一。已落成的新亚历山大图书馆正在逐步完善,期待有一天能承旧图新,重现辉煌。新馆耗资2.2亿美元建造,于2002年全部完工,其附属设施包括一个文化中心,内设天文馆、会议中心、古籍修复室,以及分别为儿童、青少年和盲人读者服务的专属图书馆。新馆的规模十分庞大,设计容量高达800万册图书,目前的藏书量有50多万。VOCABULARYepicenter: n. 中心papier-mâché: n. 混凝纸;制型纸antiquity: n. 古迹;文物planetarium: n. 天文馆

英语写作中的雷区:垂悬修饰语

在开始我们今天的微课前,大家先来看看这两句话:Reaching the station, the sun came out.Walking down Main Street, the trees were beautiful.以上这两句话有语法上的错误吗?若是让一名英语学习者来做个评判,很可能发现不了问题,甚至会觉得它们“断句合理,朗朗上口”。殊不知,这两句都犯了“垂悬修饰”之讹。作为英语写作中经常出现的一类语法错误,“Dangling modifier”常常不知不觉出现在学生的习作之中,那么它到底错在哪里?又应该如何避免,躲开这块雷区呢?垂悬结构回到上文中的例句。若是按照常理,它们应被理解为“走近车站,太阳出来了”以及“沿着大马路走,行道树十分漂亮”。可是,分句中的修饰语没有与我们想要关联的对象联系起来。以上两句中,作者在分句中都是修饰了人“走”的动作,但后半句中的主语却分别是太阳和树木,逻辑关系混乱,而这恰是由于修饰语无法与主句的主语构成逻辑关系,这种逻辑错误会给句子的理解带来不必要的笑话或麻烦。同样的一句话,其实可以被理解成“太阳走近车站,出来了”。由此可见,“垂悬修饰”的得名,是因为它只是“悬”在了那儿,没有与其它成分产生联系,形成主语一致,因而造成了病句。独立结构与垂悬修饰形成相对的是“独立结构”。独立结构中的非限定分句,被称为独立分句(或简单分句),语义上不依附句中任何成分,因此我们容易将它和垂悬结构混淆。它们的区别是,垂悬修饰短语是试图修饰一个特定的名词,却错误地修饰了另一个名词,而独立结构是一个独立的分句,不试图修饰任何名词。如"The referee having finally arrived, the game began. "便将两个主语分清楚,不会造成歧义。“独立结构”适用于语义不依附于彼此的分句,那么对于主语一致的句子,应该如何处理才能把“不安分”的垂悬结构给稳定住?今天为大家带来的微课 Dangling Modifiers as a Common Writing Error 就将全面梳理垂悬出现的各类情形,并逐个击破,敬请收看!

第八届教学大赛一等奖冯伟说课

“Success is not defined by how high you climb but by how high you bounce when you hit the bottom.”★参赛感言★第八届“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛是我第三次参加这一比赛。2011年我参加了第二届大赛,并获得了国赛的第七名;2016年我参加了第七届大赛江苏省的复赛和决赛,并获得了省赛第一名,遗憾的是当年没有举办职业院校组的国赛。为了能够再次参加国赛,我于今年参加了第八届大赛,终于了却了自己的一个心愿。我之所以一而再、再而三地参赛,一方面是因为对第一次参加国赛的成绩不是很满意,但更重要的原因是从第一次参赛起我就认识到教学大赛确实能够提升我们对英语教学的理解,促进教师职业生涯的发展。教学大赛为我们提供了尝试创新的平台和契机,而创新是消除职业倦怠感、保持对教学的激情、维系课堂生命的纽带。我觉得教学大赛的意义并不是教师们要在教学技艺上分个高低,而是通过参赛积极反思自己的教学,不断寻求教学设计、教学策略、教学方法等方面的自我突破和超越。尤其是对于在高职院校从事公共英语教学的老师们来说,面对生源素质的逐年下降和公共英语教学逐步被边缘化的窘境,很容易产生倦怠感和疲劳感,丧失对教学的热情,而大赛就如一针强心剂,能够唤醒、激发我们的潜能,帮我们找回、延续那种愉悦和激情。例如,今年我参加省赛时,被分配的现场授课课文是一篇小故事,大意是讲主人公在利物浦车站下车,前往青年旅社,于途中迷路后通过问路到达目的地的故事。故事内容简单,情节单调,在日常的教学中我们往往想不到或没有动力去探求出彩的教学设计。但在比赛的驱动之下,我想到了根据课文内容画出两个线路图,课堂上让学习者读故事的同时逐步在地图中标出roundabout、 traffic lights等地标,然后勾选出正确的线路图,最后再让学习者参照地图练习与问路和指路相关的交际用语。这一教学设计不同于常规的阅读教学,学习者要将对课文中文字的理解转化为生动、具体的图画内容,是一种能够充分调动学生积极主动参与的、有效的阅读教学策略,在比赛时得到了评委们的一致认同和肯定。试想如果没有教学大赛,我也许不可能有灵感和精力去尝试这种教学设计。最后,感谢外教社为我们英语教师提供了这样一个切磋技艺、碰撞思想、启发思考、激励创新的平台。祝愿大赛永葆生机和活力,祝愿更多的英语教师能通过参赛找到属于自己的那份愉悦和激情。说课点评专家:沈银珍教授说课不同于授课,在为时 10分钟的说课环节,教师要讲清楚“教什么”、“为什么”、“怎么教”、“怎么学”等问题。冯伟老师说课的文章标题为 “The real cost of travel”,他说课条理清晰,从对课文内容的理解、学情分析、教学目标、教学过程等方面对教学内容进行了很好的阐述。在分析课文环节,教师能根据文章的主题和作者所关注的问题,在分析文章的内容、结构、重点与难点的基础上提出教学目标,即: 1)帮助学生了解环境污染的原因及解决方法, 2)解决文章中出现的关键词汇和句型, 3)唤起学生对环境问题的重视。在学情分析的基础上,教师制定了详细的教学过程。首先是 warming-up环节:教师将学生分成三组,上网查找课文中将要涉及的三个旅游景点的相关信息,并派代表做小组汇报;然后教师通过提问,引出文章的主题,即旅游所带来的环境污染问题。接下来是 text-understanding环节:教师通过 skimming and scanning等阅读练习和完形填空,帮助学生理解课文内容和文章结构。第三个环节是 language items的学习:通过词汇练习和重点句型操练,让学生了解“一词多意”和“一意多词”的现象,解决语言点和语法结构问题。第四个环节是 productive tasks:通过问题 “What can we do to reduce the impact mass tourism has done upon us and our lives?”,让学生头脑风暴,想出各种方法。最后是课后作业:教师要求学生模仿课文结构,写一篇有关“手机给我们的生活所带来的影响”的文章。从教学设计来看,教师紧紧围绕教学目标展开教学,采用任务教学法,多次布置教学任务,通过小组讨论、头脑风暴等形式,提高学生的语言应用能力。同时,教师也注重运用现代信息技术,让学生通过互联网查找相关信息,培养学生发现问题、分析问题、解决问题的能力。不足之处在于,在回答评委提问环节,冯老师对评委的第一个问题理解还不够到位,表述还不够清晰。

第八届教学大赛一等奖冯伟授课

“Success is not defined by how high you climb but by how high you bounce when you hit the bottom.”★参赛感言★第八届“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛是我第三次参加这一比赛。2011年我参加了第二届大赛,并获得了国赛的第七名;2016年我参加了第七届大赛江苏省的复赛和决赛,并获得了省赛第一名,遗憾的是当年没有举办职业院校组的国赛。为了能够再次参加国赛,我于今年参加了第八届大赛,终于了却了自己的一个心愿。我之所以一而再、再而三地参赛,一方面是因为对第一次参加国赛的成绩不是很满意,但更重要的原因是从第一次参赛起我就认识到教学大赛确实能够提升我们对英语教学的理解,促进教师职业生涯的发展。教学大赛为我们提供了尝试创新的平台和契机,而创新是消除职业倦怠感、保持对教学的激情、维系课堂生命的纽带。我觉得教学大赛的意义并不是教师们要在教学技艺上分个高低,而是通过参赛积极反思自己的教学,不断寻求教学设计、教学策略、教学方法等方面的自我突破和超越。尤其是对于在高职院校从事公共英语教学的老师们来说,面对生源素质的逐年下降和公共英语教学逐步被边缘化的窘境,很容易产生倦怠感和疲劳感,丧失对教学的热情,而大赛就如一针强心剂,能够唤醒、激发我们的潜能,帮我们找回、延续那种愉悦和激情。例如,今年我参加省赛时,被分配的现场授课课文是一篇小故事,大意是讲主人公在利物浦车站下车,前往青年旅社,于途中迷路后通过问路到达目的地的故事。故事内容简单,情节单调,在日常的教学中我们往往想不到或没有动力去探求出彩的教学设计。但在比赛的驱动之下,我想到了根据课文内容画出两个线路图,课堂上让学习者读故事的同时逐步在地图中标出roundabout、 traffic lights等地标,然后勾选出正确的线路图,最后再让学习者参照地图练习与问路和指路相关的交际用语。这一教学设计不同于常规的阅读教学,学习者要将对课文中文字的理解转化为生动、具体的图画内容,是一种能够充分调动学生积极主动参与的、有效的阅读教学策略,在比赛时得到了评委们的一致认同和肯定。试想如果没有教学大赛,我也许不可能有灵感和精力去尝试这种教学设计。最后,感谢外教社为我们英语教师提供了这样一个切磋技艺、碰撞思想、启发思考、激励创新的平台。祝愿大赛永葆生机和活力,祝愿更多的英语教师能通过参赛找到属于自己的那份愉悦和激情。授课点评专家:董剑桥教授作为外语老师,冯伟老师的语言基本功扎实,教师素养颇佳。冯老师与学生沟通有耐心,能掌握节奏、注意引导,其教态从容自然,能张弛有度、即兴应答,比较接近平时的教学状态。冯伟老师课授的特点是:有深度、有创意,教学设计比较合理;紧扣课题导入课堂活动;通过听写填空,自然过渡到课文内容的讲解;通过问题回答(trademark),巧妙转入组合词归类分析,并带出课文中的生词释义。整个讲解过程中穿插了学生的活动,一气呵成,十分流畅,无生硬之感。只是,年份游戏的设计虽然能活跃气氛,却并没有超出识记回忆的层次,且与既定教学目标相关性不大。总体来讲,冯老师的课是一堂很好的“公开课”,如果在以下几个方面能进一步推敲琢磨,相信一定会更上一层楼:1.教学设计与时间安排。较之于45分钟的常规课授,20分钟的竞赛型课授花了5分40秒时间导入,显然不够经济。原以为冯老师单刀直入,从课文题目切入问答,直接开讲。没料到,一番互动后, PPT播出教学五步骤,这才又正式进入 opening up,谈起了personal hero,为导而导的匠心立显,但却拖泥带水了。程式化教学套路对教师的制约之强,由此可见一斑。其实,在问过“Who is Red Adair?”“What troubles did he shoot?”“How extraordinary is his job?”等问题后,如直接进入听写填空,留出时间让学生带着问题快速浏览文本,那么随后的所有教学活动就有了认知的逻辑起点。现在的设计还是有引君入瓮的套路之嫌,学生并没有获得学习的主动权。2.教材审读与教学处理。作为介绍性传记类文本,该语篇文字流畅、结构完整、层次清晰、可读性较好。但是,文章删改的痕迹还是很明显,个别地方甚至略有瑕疵。如倒数第二段的“ In March of 1991, Red Adair went to Kuwait to put out about 700 Kuwaiti fires following the Persian Gulf War.”,经查证原文,扑灭科威特 700处油井火灾并不只是 Red Adair公司一家所为,而是来自 16个国家的 27支油田火灾救援队共同努力的结果,是以原文有 “helped prevent ...”一说。(专家提问时曾对 “prevent”一词敏感,这恰恰是文脉逻辑问题所致的“不适”。)问题是冯老师所选的一段听写正是来自原文,按说对原文并非一无所知,可见教材审读还稍欠火候,内容处理不够细致也就在所难免了。3.语言点选择与教法设计。冯老师选择 compound words作为教学重点应该说是有一定的深度和价值的,但是考虑到学生的接受程度,似可以有更好的方法:即如何巧用已知推演未知。如 troubleshooter是生词,但 troublemaker却是熟词;同样,讲解 deadline的构词时,可让学生说出用 line合成的词,如 online、offline、outline、lifeline等等;再如,可列出 ice cream、dinner table、living room让学生在文中找类似的组合词oil well、oil rig、gas leak等;给出 notebook、superman等让学生找出 trademark、Hollywood、hellfighter、birthday等等,然后再请学生比较哪些合成词的语义与原词素相关,哪些则已面目全非,这比越俎代庖的概念灌输和机械记忆更能调动学生。至于加不加连字符,这可能取决于使用频率、约定俗成或是否便于识记(如 mother-in-law),若简单归类,则容易误导。合成词的语义透明度是一个相当专业的学术问题,点到为止即可。应告诉学生合成词的语义并非总是一目了然,应该勤查词典,不可望文生义,这恰恰是学习方法的指点。顺便说一下, deadline一开始确实是“死亡之线”, extra-ordinary是超乎寻常的意思, extra不是very,而是 beyond的意思。

练习 | AP News一分钟新闻:“时代周刊” 揭晓年度人物

燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is AP News Minute.Time magazine has named 4 journalists and a newspaper as its 2018 "Person of the Year" for standing up for the truth in the face of persecution and violence. The group, which Time calls "the guardians" includes slain Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.President Donald Trump meets Tuesday at the White House with presumptive House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Democratic Senate leader Chuck Schumer as they try to avoid a partial government shutdown amid a dispute over Trump's promised border wall.Cities across the southeast are still digging out from the massive snowstorm that hit the region Sunday. Many schools are closed for a second day. Thousands are still without power.A 102-year-old woman from Australia has broken the record for the oldest skydiver in the world when she jumped from 14,000 feet Sunday to raise money for motor neuron disease.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201812/573319.shtmlVOCABULARY1. persecute v. persecute sb. (for sth.) to treat sb. in a cruel and unfair way, especially because of their race, religion or political beliefs (因种族、宗教或政治信仰)迫害,残害,压迫。例如: Throughout history, people have been persecuted for their religious beliefs. 人们因宗教信仰而受迫害的情况贯穿了整个历史。2. presumptive adj. (常用于名词前) (technical 术语) likely to be true, based on the facts that are available 很可能的;假设的;推断的3. skydiving n. (不可数名词) a sport in which you jump from a plane and fall for as long as you safely can before opening your parachute 延缓张伞跳伞运动;特技跳伞运动。例如:to go skydiving进行特技跳伞 (派生词) skydiver做空中造型动作的跳伞运动员QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is AP News Minute.Time magazine has named 4 journalists and a newspaper as its 2018 "Person of the Year" for standing up for the (Q1) _______________ in the face of (Q2) ___________________________. The group, which Time calls "the guardians" includes slain Saudi (Q3) ________________ Jamal Khashoggi.President Donald Trump meets Tuesday at the White House with presumptive House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Democratic Senate leader Chuck Schumer as they try to avoid a partial government (Q4) __________________ amid a (Q5) ____________________ over Trump's promised border wall.Cities across the southeast are still digging out from the massive (Q6) ________________ that hit the region Sunday. Many schools are closed for a second day. Thousands are still (Q7) ______________.A 102-year-old (Q8) ____________________ from Australia has broken the record for the oldest (Q9) ________________________ in the world when she jumped from 14,000 feet Sunday to (Q10) ___________________________ for motor neuron disease.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is AP News Minute.Time magazine has named 4 journalists and a newspaper as its 2018 "Person of the Year" for standing up for the (Q1) truth in the face of (Q2) persecution and violence. The group, which Time calls "the guardians" includes slain Saudi (Q3) journalist Jamal Khashoggi.President Donald Trump meets Tuesday at the White House with presumptive House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Democratic Senate leader Chuck Schumer as they try to avoid a partial government (Q4) shutdown amid a (Q5) dispute over Trump's promised border wall.Cities across the southeast are still digging out from the massive (Q6) snowstorm that hit the region Sunday. Many schools are closed for a second day. Thousands are still (Q7) without power.A 102-year-old (Q8) woman from Australia has broken the record for the oldest (Q9) skydiver in the world when she jumped from 14,000 feet Sunday to (Q10) raise money for motor neuron disease.

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:疼痛预期会影响疼痛体验

燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Getting a vaccine can be a painful experience, especially when you're a kid. But getting told the shot might "hurt a bit" could actually make it worse."We know that expectation affects pain experience in adults. But we don't really know whether this is also true for children."Kalina Michalska, a developmental neuroscientist at the University of California, Riverside. She led a study to find out.The study included 25 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder. Because medical procedures make pretty much all kids anxious... and those who are anxious to start with tend to find the experience even more painful.The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forearm of each participant. And they asked subjects to rate the temperature in terms of discomfort. The hottest setting was about the temperature of very warm tap water - uncomfortable, perhaps, but not damaging."But during the experiment, we were most interested in only one temperature: the one that each subject rated as medium."That's where the "anticipation" part of the experiment comes in. Subjects were played one of two tones. "One tone meant that low heat was coming; the other meant that high heat was upcoming." But here's the sneaky part. No matter what tone was played, participants got the same heat applied - the one rated as "medium." "So even though the subject heard a cue indicating high pain or low pain, the pain was only medium."Or at least that's how it should have felt. But what happened was that subjects reported feeling what they thought they would."If we tell them through this tone that they're going to experience a lot of pain, they'll actually experience more pain: they rated the pain as higher. And conversely, if we tell them that they will experience only low pain, they also rate their experiences as less painful.""This is really important because it kind of reinforces the necessity of not hyping up painful experiences. And also discouraging children from ramping up the experience in their head."And the same, it seems, goes for the grownups."One aspect surprised us, was that all three groups experienced a similar relationship between pain expectation and pain experience. We expected the strongest correlation among anxious children. But however all three groups showed a very large effect of expectancy on their experience of pain."The research is in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine.Next up, Michalska says she'd like to examine whether negative associations can be unlearned. So next time you need a shot, remember: if you think it won't be so bad, maybe it won't be.Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201812/571827.shtmlVOCABULARY1. neuroscience n. (不可数名词) the science that deals with the structure and function of the brain and the nervous system 神经科学 (派生词) neuroscientist神经科学家2. wand n. any object in the shape of a straight thin stick 棍;棒;杆;杖。例如:a mascara wand睫毛膏棒3. hype up: 煽动; 使兴奋。例如:To hype someone up means to deliberately make them very excited about something. 例如:Everyone at school used to hype each other up about men all the time. 过去在学校大家经常相互煽动彼此对男人的兴趣。4. rampe sth. up: to make sth. increase in amount使…的数量增加QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (✔) or false (✘) statements. 1. Getting a vaccine can be a painful experience, especially when you're a kid. 2. The study included 27 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder. 3. The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forehead of each participant. 4. The sneaky part is no matter what tone was played, participants got the different heat applied. 5. One aspect, all three groups experienced a similar relationship between pain expectation and pain experience, surprised us. 6. Next time you need a shot, if you think it won't be so bad, maybe it won't be. 7. Expectation affects pain experience. This is true for both adults and children.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (✔) or false (✘) statements.✔ 1. Getting a vaccine can be a painful experience, especially when you're a kid.✘ 2. The study included 27 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder. (正确表达) The study included 25 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder.✘ 3. The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forehead of each participant. (正确表达) The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forearm of each participant.✘ 4. The sneaky part is no matter what tone was played, participants got the different heat applied. (正确表达) The sneaky part is no matter what tone was played, participants got the same heat applied.✔ 5. One aspect, all three groups experienced a similar relationship between pain expectation and pain experience, surprised us.✔ 6. Next time you need a shot, if you think it won't be so bad, maybe it won't be.✔ 7. Expectation affects pain experience. This is true for both adults and children.

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