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炎炎夏日中的冰爽美味

China has entered Toufu on July 17th, the first phase of Sanfu. In the Chinese lunar calendar, Sanfu refers to the hottest period of the year, which includes three phases, that is, Toufu, Zhongfu and Mofu. On the long, hot summer days, few people have a good appetite. Ice cream and fruit sound more refreshing than a bowl of hot noodles.7月17日我国正式进入“头伏”,也就是三伏天的第一阶段。在中国农历中,三伏天意味着一年中最热的一段日子,前中后分为“头伏”、“中伏”和“末伏”三个阶段。在漫长的炎炎夏日中,人们的胃口常常欠佳,这个时候,相比一碗热气腾腾的汤面,冰激凌和水果就显得更加诱人了。Ice cream may be deemed as western dessert: the classic creamy texture is quite different from Chinese tastes. Actually, Chinese people have enjoyed "ice cream" in summer since ancient time. Here are some icy delicacies on summer days in ancient China and currently popular ones.冰激凌在我们印象中总是显得很西式:经典细腻的口感和我们东方的口味显得相距甚远。但实际上,中国的古人很早就开始享用那时的“冰激凌”了,接下来我们就来看一下古时和现在的一些夏日冰爽佳品。Icy Delicacy Favored by Royals and Nobles — Sushan 皇家风范的“酥山”Sushan is a dish that looks like crushed ice with milk and butter. Wang Lingran, a Chinese Tang Dynasty Poet, described how people made and enjoyed Sushan in his poem Ode to Su He Shan. According to the text, sugar was added to Sushan of different  shapes. Sometimes, Sushan was decorated with flowers and leaves to make it more beautiful.酥山看起来就像淋上牛奶和黄油的刨冰。在唐朝诗人王泠然的《苏合山赋》中详细讲了唐人制作、使用酥山的过程。酥山上加入糖,可将其变换为各种形态,辅以花朵和绿叶点缀,更显美丽诱人。His poem is cited by many scholars as evidence that Sushan is an early form of ice cream. However, only the royals and nobles were lucky enough to have large iceboxes to make this delicacy in summer.很多学者认为王泠然对酥山的描绘证明了其作为我国最早的“冰激凌”的起源,但是在那时,只有王公贵族在炎炎夏日才有这番待遇能够享受到冰凉美味的酥山。Simple, Refreshing Icy Treats简单、沁人的“冰”品Although there were no fridges in ancient times, iceboxes to store ice cubes in summer were very common in rich families by the Tang Dynasty.尽管古人没有冰箱,但发明出了储存冰块的冰盒,到了唐朝,这种器具已经在富贵人家中很普遍了。At that time, common people could only afford ice water and shaved ice. People could easily buy iced beverages on the street during the Song Dynasty. For the benefit of the community, some rich people even offered free ice water and medicine to people in need on the street for free in hot summer.但那时,普通人能享用到的“冰品”其实只有冰水和刨冰那么简单,在宋朝,冰镇饮料已经在大街小巷中普及。作为社会慈善的一部分,有些富人家还会在街上免费提供冰水和解暑药给需要的人。Mung beans and licorice were often added to ice water sold during the Song Dynasty to help prevent heat stroke.宋朝人喝的冰水中还常常加入绿豆和甘草,用来防止中暑。Resurrection from Brick-shaped Ice Cream to Fancy Sundaes从冰砖到圣代的华丽蜕变In recent years, classic Chinese brands of ice cream and popsicles are finding new ways to lure customers back, and here we see how Yimin, a time-honored Shanghai brand did the trick. 我国经典的冰糕品牌近年来不断探索新方法,吸引消费者的目光。上海的老字号益民食品厂,便是一个典型的例子。Speaking of Yimin's classic products, one has to mention its brick-shaped dessert which became one of the most popular ice cream after going on sale in the 1950s. Its popularity continued through the 1980s and 1990s, making it an important part of the childhood memory of several generations. Its size and shape resembled a soap bar. And consumers would dip it in soda water, mix it with cookies and fruits, or even use  it as a dressing for fruit salad after it melts.说到益民旗下的经典产品,不得不提那“光明冰砖”。自上世纪50年代问世以来,直到80、90年代,一直都是夏天最热门的冷饮之一,陪伴了好几代人走过了童年的夏天。冰砖的形状如一块肥皂,顾客买来不仅可以直接吃,还可以泡上苏打水,拌入曲奇饼干和水果,甚至还可以任其融化,倒在水果沙拉上吃,可谓是吃法繁多。However, in the new century, a large number of imported ice cream brands began to compete with domestic brands for more market share. In recent years, local brands eventually started to fight back after years of stagnation – including the creative "Tri-color Cup" and this year's new product: Durian Sundae. If these new delicious treats will offer you nostalgia as a bonus, why not give it a try?新世纪以来大量的外资冰激凌品牌涌入使得本土品牌的生存空间越来越小。在经历了多年的停滞不前后,近年国产品牌开始逐渐发力,推出了新款“三色杯”,今年还推出了创意满满的“榴莲圣代”。当浓醇的美味得以创新和延续,加上一丝清新的怀旧情怀,何尝不去尝试一下老字号的新产品呢?

世卫组织将“游戏成瘾”列为精神疾病

The World Health Organization (WHO) has included “gaming disorder” in a draft of its 11th International Classification of Diseases — describing it as “a pattern of persistent or recurrent gaming behavior” that may include impaired control over gaming activities, and is severe “to the extent that gaming takes precedence over other life interests and daily activities.”世界卫生组织(WHO)近日在第十一版《国际疾病分类》的修订草案中将“游戏成瘾”纳入其列。根据定义,游戏障碍,也就是我们通常所说的“游戏成瘾”,其症状一般包括对玩游戏失去控制力,日益沉溺于游戏,以至于其它兴趣和日常活动都得“靠边儿站”。These symptoms normally must appear over a period of 12 months for a diagnosis, though it may be diagnosed in a shorter amount of time depending on the severity. The new classification is not saying that all video game playing is a mental health disorder, but rather that excessive gaming over a period of time can lead to diagnosis and treatment.这些症状出现的时间达12个月后,“游戏成瘾”的诊断就得到确定,但若十分严重,确诊的时限可因实际情况而减少。新的分类标准并不是指玩电子游戏就是一种精神疾患,而是强调了如果长时间沉迷于游戏之中无法自拔,便可达到诊断和治疗的标准。Video game play has been a constant debate over the years, with some studies saying it leads to violent behavior in real life — the American Psychological Association said in a 2015 policy statement that there is a demonstrated link between violent video game use and aggressive behavior — while others say video games are beneficial as a stress reliever and cognitive booster for memory. But as with everything, moderation is key.电子游戏近年来一直都饱受争议,有些研究表明电子游戏会诱导玩家在真实世界中产生暴力倾向,而美国心理学会在2015年的一项声明中指出,暴力类游戏与攻击性行为之间存在正相关联系;与此同时,也有研究认为电子游戏有助于释放压力,促进记忆力增强。但是话说回来,适可而止才是问题的关键。Back to China 回到国内According to a recent survey by Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, about 18 percent of Chinese youth play online video games at least four to five hours per day, showing signs of addiction. Though 41.3 percent of Chinese young people understand that it is unhealthy to spend too much time online, they cannot control themselves.近日中国社科院也发布了一项针对电子游戏的调查报告,报告指出,我国约有18%的青少年每天进行在线游戏长达4至5小时,具有成瘾倾向。尽管41.3%的青少年承认,长时间玩网络游戏对健康有害,但是他们就是无法控制自己。 The percentage of students who play online games at least four days a week grows with age -- 16.9 percent for elementary students, 21.3 percent for junior high school students and 31.8 percent for senior high school students.此外,针对那些每周至少玩4天游戏的青少年,年纪越长,游戏玩家的人数也越多——小学阶段占比有16.9%,初中生为21.3%,高中生则高达31.8%。The reason points to the accessibility of digital products and parental supervision that drive to the increase of numbers. Older children need to use the Internet more often than younger children, both for study and daily life, as well as to meet their social needs, and teachers and parents usually loosen their supervision as children grow up.归结这背后的原因,一是青少年获取电子设备的难度随着年龄增长而不断减少,二是家长的监督也不断放松。随着青少年年龄的上升,他们对网络的需求也越大,既有学习、生活方面的需要,也有社交的需求,而教师和家长也逐渐放松了对青少年的监督。Though controversial, previous surveys all indicate that gaming addiction is becoming more prevalent among teenagers and children. As WHO is enlisting it as a mental disorder, it’s time for parents, educators and students to put some serious considerations into this issue.尽管对于电子游戏的讨论一直争议不断,但是大量的调查研究都已表明,游戏上瘾已成为青少年中越来越普遍的一个趋势。在世卫组织将其列入精神疾病之时,家长、教育者和学生们看来是有必要仔细想想这个问题了。VOCABULARYrecurrent: adj.复发的;经常性的impair: v.损害;削弱moderation: n.适度;节制

故宫博物院

The Palace Museum in Beijing, or the Forbidden City, has received more than 100 million visitors since January 2012, according to the museum.首都北京的故宫博物院,也就是我们所熟知的紫禁城,据馆方的消息说,自2012年1月以来已经突破了1亿的累计客流。To avoid overcrowding during peak season, the museum has allowed a maximum of 80,000 visitors per day since June 2015, compared with more than 100,000 or even 180,000 visitors per day previously.为了避免在旅游旺季出现人挤人的情形,博物院自2015年6月起开始实行每天限流8万人的政策。而在政策实施前,故宫动辄就会出现超10万甚至18万的日客流。Controlling visitor numbers is aimed at protecting both the cultural relics and visitors. The museum will further improve its management and conduct a pilot scheme of selling different amounts of tickets at different periods during the day in 2019.实施限流不仅是为了保护文物,同时也是为了保障游客的人身安全。博物院还将在2019年加强管理,试行分时段售票政策。As a renowned world cultural heritage site and home to priceless art works and artefacts, the Palace Museum is a must-see for tourists and saw a record high of 16.7 million visitors in 2017.作为世界著名的文化遗产,故宫拥有无数的艺术珍宝和历史遗存,是来京游客的必到景点,曾在2017年创下1670万人的最高年客流记录。Meanwhile, the Palace Museum has been making every effort to repair the palace complex with a view to open more sections to the public. Back to 2015, when the Forbidden City celebrated its 90th anniversary, four new sections were unveiled, including the palace that housed the emperor's mother, making 65 percent of the complex accessible to the public. It is estimated that before 2020, more than 85% of the whole area will be ready to open to the public.与此同时,故宫博物院一直在不遗余力地修缮、开放新区域。在2015年,为了迎接故宫90周年院庆,四大未曾开放的区域整修后亮相世人,其中包括了慈禧的寝宫,使得整个故宫开放的区域达到了65%。此外官方预计在2020年前,故宫的开放区域能扩大到85%。Located in the heart of Beijing, the Palace Museum was home to emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties. After the revolution of 1911, which ended the reign of the Qing Dynasty, the last emperor, Puyi, didn’t leave the palace until 1924, when he was expelled.位于北京中心位置的故宫博物院曾经是明清两朝的皇宫。1911年辛亥革命推翻了清王朝后,末代皇帝溥仪仍居留在此,直至1924年被逐出皇宫。Over the following years, many treasures were lost due to social unrest. Lacking of proper maintenance further exacerbated the worsening condition of the old palace. In the next several decades, the museum has been taking great efforts to renovate and recover the huge complex. It is a year-long and difficult project to restore more than 9,000 rooms taking 72 hectares.接踵而至的社会动荡让故宫的文物大量流失,日常维护的缺失更使得故宫的状况日益恶化。随后的几十年中,馆方耗费了大量的精力对这一庞大的皇宫进行修缮,但修复这片占地72公顷,拥有9000多间房间的建筑群仍是一项漫长而艰难的工程。Nowadays, the Palace Museum faces new problems such as protection and large number of visitors. Since January 2014, the museum has been closed to public every Monday for renovation and maintenance work. Visitors are suggested to book tickets online in advance.如今,故宫博物院除了修缮外,还面临着高客流量和随之带来的安全问题。自2014年1月起,故宫每周一闭馆,进行集中修缮和维护。游客也被建议提前在网上购票。VOCABULARYpilot scheme: 试点方案artefact:n. 制品,人工产物exacerbate:v. 恶化;加重

第八届教学大赛二等奖姚素华授课

“Shanghai, I came. I conquered. The experience will be engraved in my memory forever. Thank you all, my beloved friends and colleagues. The prize is for us!”★参赛感言★有幸代表广东省参加此次全国性的比赛,实为教学经历上的里程碑。感谢外教社搭建这样一个平台,感谢评委老师们精彩的提问和点评,感谢广东交通职业技术学院基础部朱东华主任和教研室张彦杰主任的全力支持和用心指导,感谢去年广东参赛选手陈海涛老师以及各位同窗好友的帮助。在此次盛事中,广东赛区还荣获了最佳组织奖,获得了一赛双赢的好成绩!作为一名普通的英语教师,我的工作就是让学生在课堂中尽可能多学知识并掌握学知识的方法,通过英语更多了解外面的世界,更好地提高自身的人文素养。一直以来,我都尽己所能地备好课、上好课,积极与学生交流,了解他们的想法,设计出适合他们的水平、兴趣和目标的教学活动。在备赛的两个月中,我几乎每天都在为之奋斗,这个过程可谓“痛并快乐着”。我研读了“外语教学网”微信公众号的“教学风采”栏目以及每年外教社出版的大赛相关书籍,分析了往届优秀获奖选手的现场授课和即兴说课,对比赛流程和评委风格进行了了解,积累了大量学习笔记。在得知进入全国总决赛之后,我便将赛场上所有可能出现的问题罗列出来,虚心请教在去年国赛中荣获二等奖的陈海涛老师。陈老师经验丰富,对我的问题一一作了回答,对我进行了耐心的指导。离国赛还有两周时开始网上选题,我所抽到的题目是全球PwC主席有关上海作为智慧城市之未来的一篇演讲。文章术语众多,语句复杂,信息量大。现场授课仅有20分钟,如何简洁、清晰地把教学重点完整、连贯地呈现出来是个考验。为此,我先对整篇文章的主线和背景进行了全面而细致的梳理,不放过任何一个单词,又与研究生同学和同事们讨论文章内容和教学思路,思学生所想,教学生所需,集思广益,反复推敲。然后进行全文翻译润色,不断修改课件和授课稿。最后,和学生进行教学演练,继续完善教学思路。特此感谢朱主任和张老师,二位在观摩演练之后提出很多宝贵的建议,让我受益匪浅。在两周的准备过程中,我侧重于全国决赛授课环节的准备,而对总决赛的说课环节有所忽略,因此在说课环节倍感压力,未能像在省赛中那样稳定、自如地发挥,略感遗憾。但人生就是惊喜与遗憾的交织,不是吗?当前大学英语正面临着重要改革,其重要性被逐渐削弱。我想起在一次全国性的教学培训中,主讲人问了在场各位老师一个问题:“大学英语课堂最终能带给学生什么?”有些老师说“英语知识”,有些老师说“考试技巧”。我当时的想法是,让学生通过英语了解和学习国外先进的知识和技术,这与主讲老师的想法不谋而合——“增强我国的综合国力”。推行“一带一路”使我们国家对复合型人才的需求日益急迫,再高水平的翻译人员也无法替代专业技术人士去解决技术层面上的问题。这也是我在宝洁公司担任越洋培训翻译中的深刻感受。希望大学英语课堂能为高职高专学子在成为复合型技术人才的道路上做好铺垫。以上便是个人在此次教学比赛以及大学英语教学中的一点体会。再次感谢外教社和广交院提供宝贵的机会,让我得以在教学的道路上越走越远、越走越深、越走越广。授课点评专家:曾用强教授姚素华老师讲授的课文是“ Shanghai's future as a connected, smart city”。她首先以一张学生熟悉的“双十一”宣传画引入 online shopping这一概念,继而引出现代中国的新四大发明: online shopping、online payment、high-speed rail、shared bike,以此导入主题“ Shanghai's future as a connected, smart city”。大约两分钟的导入之后,姚老师介绍了教学目标:掌握文章大意、学习课文中的词语及构词法(以 -ity为后缀的派生词)、分析并概括上海是如何成为一座真正的智慧城市的。姚老师用自我陈述的方式介绍了课文中提到的几项现代技术,然后要求学生完成阅读理解练习(填空题),最后与学生边讨论边对答案,并引出课文中的重点词语,着重讲解了后缀 -it的用法,比如 mobile → mobility、connect → connectivity等。姚老师的教学设计重点在课文分析。她首先向学生介绍了课文分析的框架: topic ─ illustration ─ example ─ ending,然后基于这个框架分析了课文的三大部分(分别介绍 improved health、smart business和mobile technology等三大领域),教学方法采用“问答+填空”。姚老师最后应用思维导图概括了课文的讲解,给予学生很直观的感受。姚老师的这一环节的教学比较成功:引导学生如何学习(课文分析的框架)、指导学生完成学习(互动+训练)、教导学生概括学习(思维导图)。姚老师以角色扮演来结束本课的教学:学生带她的爷爷逛上海,介绍上海生活中的现代技术的应用,让爷爷打开眼界。角色扮演是一种很好的教学形式,让学生有身临其境的感觉,容易激发学生真实的语言产出。但有点遗憾的是,在本节课中,学生类似的真实语言产出有点少,大多数时候学生只是在做练习,然后对答案。姚老师的教学特征可以概括为“平实”:首先,在整个教学过程中,她对待学生很“平和”,总是面带微笑,语音、语调也是不急不慢,一点也不做作;其次,她的教学设计很“平常”,遵循了常规的“导入——讲解(从课文到语言点)——概括——布置作业”;最后,她的教学组织很“平稳”,设计了贴近学生实际水平的练习,每个教学环节之间的衔接很自然、顺畅,时间把控得比较合理。“平实”的教学风格有时候会给人一种“缺乏激情,创新不足”的感觉,所以我的建议是:保持自己的“平实”风格,通过训练方式的“创新”,激发学生的“激情”。也就是说,在今后的教学中,增加让学生主动参与的、互动性强的训练方式(如角色扮演、仿真任务等),最大化激发学生真实的语言产出。

第八届教学大赛二等奖季佳平授课

“路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索。”★参赛感言★2009年夏天,我怀揣梦想来到南通师范高等专科学校,成为一名英语教师。初为人师的我,时刻铭记着“坚苦自立,忠实不欺”的校训,丝毫不敢懈怠。然而,教学之路并非一马平川。执教之初我便发现高职学生生性好动、乐于学习,但他们的英语语言能力相对较低。怎样让他们善学、善思、善用呢?所幸在我执教的这所老师范院校里我找到了答案——教在学生疑难处、教在知识重点处、教在学力潜能处。“外教社杯”全国高校外语教学大赛已经举办了八届,我先后参加了第四届和第八届比赛。两次比赛对于我来说是难得的锻炼,我收获的不仅是先进的教育理念、积极的创新思维和优化的教学方法,更是触动心灵的感悟。以这次全国决赛为例,我抽到的是“Edge kidsand influencers”这篇文章。拿到题目的两天中,我查阅了国内外大大小小的网站,但一无所获。可想而知,组委会这样做不仅是为了比赛的公平,更是为了考验选手的实力。两周的备赛时间,既艰苦又煎熬。其间,我冥思苦想、不断修改、反复演练,最终我否定了前几稿内容,决定基于主题,从edge kids和influencers的定义、重要性、必要性和价值出发,优化教学设计。这样环环相扣的阅读任务不仅能让学生吃透文本,更能让他们在忠于原文却高于原文的基础上顺利完成最后的写作练习,以形成“以读促写,以写带读”的良性循环。然而非常遗憾的是,决赛时的紧张氛围让我在教学过程中语言缺乏逻辑性和准确性,未能取得理想的教学效果。正如李力教授在颁奖典礼上所言:“英语教师不仅要有扎实的语言基本功,更需要有良好的语言素养。”这番话让我为之一震,意识到这是我需要努力前进的方向。通过这次教学大赛,我领略了大赛评委老师们的渊博学识,见识了同行们的精湛技艺,感受到了校领导和同事们的关心与帮助,更明白了教学的任重道远。最后我希望自己能像一缕阳光一样,为孩子们驱散黑暗、照亮前程。我相信有爱就有光,有光就有一切。愿我的一份坚守能陪伴着他们在未来的人生路上走得更好、更远。授课点评专家:李富森教授季佳平老师授课选文的标题是 “Edge kids and influencers”。总体来说,季老师教态自然、有亲和力,教学理念明确、思路清晰,教学任务安排合理。具体而言,有以下特点:1.教学基本功扎实,具有良好的语言表达能力及较强的英语课堂教学设计能力,能较好地激发学生学习语言的积极性和主动性。比如在课程导入环节,季老师选取时尚、新颖的图片,有助于启发学生积极思考,引出主题及教学目标。2.教学目标明确:如语言目标、能力目标和情感目标。教学思路清晰,教学任务安排合理,对课文布局及语言知识的讲解详细,能较好地把握重点、难点的讲授。例如,以 statement、example、restatement为主线进行文章结构分析,并通过撰写书信引导学生总结所学知识,引导有效,设计巧妙。3.各教学步骤的时间分配及活动安排较好地体现了以学生为中心的教学理念。教学方法得当,采用任务型教学与分组讨论相结合的方式,有效帮助学生理解学习材料,有利于培养学生的语言综合运用能力,从而提高学生的思辨能力、思考能力和分析能力。例如,季老师通过下定义的方式学习关键词、使用学生熟悉的 WIFI式关系图表述关键词之间的关系。4.教态自然、活泼,有感染力,善于营造良好的课堂氛围,整个授课过程清晰、流畅。和说课相比,季老师在授课环节的教态平稳了许多,能有效调动学生的学习积极性。在评委提问环节,季老师对问题的回答正确、合理,应变能力较强。不足之处是,季老师英文表达虽然清晰流畅,但是个别单词的发音应克服一些造成发音不够标准的习惯,例如 spread、name、one、people、word等词中元音的发音需要再准确一些。

Eating Fish Oil Cannot Prevent Heart Strokes

BBC News.Flights have resumed between the capitals of Ethiopia and Eritrea. They have been suspended because of 20 years of hostility between the countries. Just over a week ago, the countries signed a peace agreement.The 12 Thai boys and their football coach who were freed from a flooded cave complex last week will speak to the media for the first time today when they leave hospital. They will then return to their homes. The group are said to be in good mental and physical health.Google will find out today whether it is to face a record fine in Europe over its Android operating system. The European Commission has said the US tech giant’s mobile device strategy unfairly strengthened its Internet search service. Britain says it’s concerned about Hong Kong government proposal to ban a political party that advocates independence for the territory. The foreign officer said the party doesn’t support independence. The laws that govern its former colony guarantee the right to free speech.Security forces in Peru have arrested over 50 people in the isolated jungle region of Putomayo in the first week of a 60-day state of emergency. President Martin Vizcarra said in a visit to the region that police and soldiers have found 4 laboratories of coca production.Geologists have classified the last 4,200 years as a distinct period which they say began with a massive draught that wiped out civilizations. They have named it the Meghalayan age after a state of Northeastern India where its onset was detected. Researchers say there is little proof that taking Omega-3 fish oil supplements helps prevent heart diseases of strokes. A new study found the chance of getting any meaningful benefit from taking the supplements is one in a thousand. Experts still believe that eating fish is good for the heart as well as general health.BBC News.

China Provides Assistance to the Children with DIsabilities

More than 1.6 million children in China aged from 0 to 6 are physically disabled, however experts suggest that this period of life is also the ideal one for children to recover from disabilities.The new rehabilitation and assistance system will provide medical treatment, counseling, training or rehabilitation, and assistive devices to give children with disabilities a boost for their recovery.Jia Yong is the vice president of China's Disabled Person's Federation. He says the new system can ease the burden on the families with small and disabled children."The children enrolled in the new system include those aged from 0 to 6 with visual, hearing, speech, physical, or mental disabilities, as well as those on the autism spectrum. The system provides basic rehabilitation services that aim to help those children overcome the obstacles brought about by their disabilities and teach them basic living and social skills so that they can develop as much independence as possible."The official says that children with physical disabilities, especially those from impoverished families or orphans adopted by welfare institutions, will have access to a variety of services."For example, hearing impaired children can have cochlea implants or be equipped with hearing aids and receive training for hearing or oral skills. Children with disabilities involving their limbs can be provided with operations, assistive devices and rehabilitation training sessions. Children with mental disabilities will receive training for cognitive or basic living skills, and the ones who have autism will be taught language or social communication skills."The funds required to support these services will be budgeted by local government authorities, with the central government providing financial subsidies.The new rehabilitation and assistance system will officially be implemented on October 1st.All children with disabilities are expected to be able to access the services by 2020.For CRI, I'm Xie Cheng.

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