双语阅读 | 关灯玩手机可能加速视力下降

关灯玩手机可能加速视力下降Using Your Smartphone in the Dark Risks Speeding up Vision Loss王淑怡 供稿A 22-year-old woman in England thought she was going blind in one eye. She could always see fine out of her left eye. But on some nights, the right eye failed her. All she could see out of it were vague shapes in the room. At first, it happened about two or three times a week. Then it started happening every night. When she went to the doctor, her vision appeared normal. So did brain scans. But it was a disturbing trend. Around the same time, another woman noticed the same thing. On some mornings, she'd lose vision in just one eye for up to 20 minutes.英国的一名22岁女性觉得自己的一只眼睛就要失明。她的左眼正常,但在某些晚上,右眼只能看到房间里模糊的影子。起初,这种情况大约每周发生两三次,然后开始每晚都会发生。但是,每次等到她去看医生时,视力又恢复了正常,脑部扫描结果也并无异常。几乎在同一时段,另一名女性也称自己遭遇了同样的事情。在某些清晨,她的一只眼睛会出现短暂失明,有时长达20分钟。 Vision loss in one eye can be a sign that a person is having a small stroke, which is why one of the women was put on bloodthinnersand the other got a brain scan. But after further investigation, researchers think the problem is much simpler. They're calling the affliction"transient smartphone 'blindness.' "一只眼睛失明可能是中风的前兆,因此,其中一名女性在治疗时被注射了血液稀释剂,另一名则做了脑部扫描。不过,经过进一步检查后,研究人员认为问题的原因并不复杂,她们只是患上了“暂时性手机致盲症”。"Both women typically looked at their smartphones with only one eye while resting on their side in bed in the dark —their other eye was covered by the pillow," says Gordon Plant, an ophthalmologistat Moorfields Eye Hospital in London. "So you have one eye adapted to the light because it's looking at the phone and the other eye is adapted to the dark."When they put their phone down, they couldn't see with the phone eye. That's because it's taking many minutes to catch up to the other eye that's adapted to the dark.伦敦穆尔菲尔兹眼科医院的戈登·普兰特医生说:“这两位女士在关灯玩手机时,经常侧躺在床上,一只眼睛盯着手机,而另一只眼则埋在枕头里。这样一来,盯手机的那只眼睛要适应光亮,而埋在枕头里的另一只眼睛要适应黑暗。”当她们放下手机时,盯手机的那只眼睛需要几分钟时间才能重新适应黑暗,因此出现了暂时看不见的症状。New research is detailing how blue light, which emits from smartphone and laptop screens, can damage your retinal cells, and possibly lead to maculardegeneration, an eye disease that causes vision loss.High levels of looking at a phone or tablet is linked with around a 30 percent higher risk ofshort-sightedness, also known as myopia. But when it is combined with excessive computer use, that risk rose to around 80 percent.一项新的研究表明,手机和电脑屏幕发出的蓝光会损害视网膜细胞,并可能导致黄斑变性,从而造成视力下降。长时间盯着手机或平板电脑会使患近视的风险增加约30%。但如果再加上过度使用电脑,这种风险将上升到80%左右。So, how can weprotect ourselves? Unfortunately, blue light can be hard to avoid. It can come from sunlight and from our smartphones and PCs. But the researchers say that people should be careful about using their electronics devices in the dark. Doing so can focus the blue light directly into your eyes. People can also consider wearing glasses that's designed tofilter outblue light. In the meantime, researchers areexploring whether an eye drop solution can be developed to counter theseeffects.那么,我们应该保护自己的双眼呢?不幸的是,蓝光很难避免。它可以来自阳光,也可以来自我们的手机和电脑。但研究人员表示,人们应尽量不要在黑暗中使用电子设备,这么做会使蓝光直接聚焦到眼睛里。也可以考虑佩戴一副防蓝光眼镜。同时,研究人员正在探索能否开发出一种滴眼液来缓解这种症状。【VOCABULARY】1.bloodthinner血液稀释剂2.afflictionn.折磨人的事物3.ophthalmologistn.眼科医生4.macularn.(眼球)黄斑的5.degenerationn. 恶化,衰退,堕落6.short-sightednessn. 近视7.myopian.近视;目光短浅,缺乏远见8.filter out过滤掉;不予注意;泄露9.eyedrop滴眼剂(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 你有数字囤积症吗?

你有数字囤积症吗?Are you a digital hoarder?王淑怡 供稿Most people are familiar with hoarding and the psychological issues associated with it. Hoarding leads to messy, cluttered homes and difficulty parting with items that you don’t use and don’t even need. But hoarding can also occur in the digital realm.大多数人对于囤积症和与之相关的心理问题都不陌生。囤积意味着生活空间过度拥挤、杂乱无序,不愿丢弃不能使用甚至不需要的物品。但是,囤积症也会发生在数字领域。Types of Digital Hoarders数字囤积者的类型Digital hoarding, also known as e-hoarding, data hoarding or cyber hoarding, is excessive acquisition and reluctance to delete electronic material no longer valuable to the user. Digital files, folders, music, movies, computer programs, and even the “friends” we keep on social media are also forms of digital clutter.数字囤积也被称为电子囤积、数据囤积或网络囤积,指的是过度获取以及不愿删除对用户不再有价值的电子材料。数字文件、文件夹、音乐、电影、电脑软件、甚至那些社交媒体上的“好友”都是各式各样的电子囤积堆。Researchers have categorized digital hoarders into 4 different types, as per their characteristics.“Collectors” are organized, systematic and in control of their data. “Accidental hoarders” are disorganized, don’t know what they have, and don’t have control over it. The “compliant hoarder” keeps data on behalf of their company. Finally, “anxious hoarders” have strong emotional ties to their data — and are worried about deleting it.研究人员依据数字囤积者的不同性格特点将他们分为四类。“收集者”是有组织、有系统地控制着数据。“意外囤积者”是无组织的,他们不知道自己拥有什么数据,也无法控制它。“听话的囤积者”为公司保存数据。最后,“焦虑的囤积者”与他们的数据有着强烈的情感联系,他们删除数据会很焦虑。How to Tackle Digital Hoarding如何解决数字囤积问题As hoarding is often associated with anxiety and insecurity, addressing the source of these negative emotions may alleviate hoarding behaviours. Workplaces can do more here, by reducing non-essential email traffic, making it very clear what information should be retained or discarded. In doing so, companies can help workers to avoid the compulsion to obsessively save and store the bulk of their digital data.囤积行为往往和焦虑、缺乏安全感有关,因此,处理好这些负面情绪可能会缓解囤积行为。在这方面公司可以做得更多些,比如减少发送非必要的电子邮件,向员工明确哪些信息可以保留,哪些可以安全删除。通过这种方式,公司能够有效地帮助员工避免强迫性地储存过量电子数据,减少数字囤积。On the other hand, part of the problem is that it's so easy to accumulate electronic data. Our phones have an incredible amount of storage space compared with just five years ago, and thanks to cloud storage, we can effortlessly store a mind-boggling amount of data without even paying for it. Therefore, it is important to organize and pare down your digital files.另外,这个问题还有一部分原因是储存电子数据越来越便捷。与五年前相比,现在智能手机的储存空间大大增加,如今又出现了云储存,我们甚至不花一分钱就能轻松地储存海量数据。因此,学会有序管理和删除电子文件非常重要。Digital hoarding can show itself in many ways but when it causes anxiety or issues with organization and productivity then it needs to be addressed. Digital clutter can be draining and stressful for some people. By organizing and getting rid of useless files in a regular way, people with this problem can ease some of their distress and declutter their own mind as well.数字囤积症的表现形式有很多,但当它给人们带来焦虑或影响组织力和生产力时,就需要我们加以解决。对于一部分人来说,数字混乱可能会让人感到疲惫和有压力。通过定期整理和删除无用文件,能够帮助数字囤积者减轻焦虑情绪,也能让他们的头脑更加清醒。【VOCABULARY】1. hoarding n. 贮存;聚藏2. cluttered adj. 杂乱的;凌乱的;挤满的3. part with 舍弃4. compliant adj. 顺从的;百依百顺的;俯首帖耳的5. traffic n. 信息流量;通信(量)6. discard v. 丢弃7. mind-boggling adj. 令人难以置信的;令人惊异的8. pare down 减少;削减9. draining adj. 使枯竭的;使筋疲力尽的10. declutter v. 清除;清理(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 穿袜子睡觉背后的科学原理

穿袜子睡觉背后的科学原理TheScience Behind SleepingWith Socks On王淑怡 供稿Millions of people around the world go to bed wearing socks. But are you curious about the sciencebehind this practice and whether it is good for our sleep?许多人睡觉时都喜欢穿着袜子。但是,你是否好奇人们这么做的科学原理是什么,以及穿着袜子睡觉是否能够改善睡眠质量?To understand why, you first need to grasp the relationship between core body temperature and sleep. During daylight hours, the human body humsalong at an average temperature of37 degrees Celsius. But at night, your core body temperature dipsas much as 1.2 degrees Celsius over the course of six or seven hours of sleep. This gradual decrease in core body temperature, it turns out, is a key part of the complicated neurobiologicaldance of falling asleep and staying asleep. And the faster you can lower the core body temperature, the faster you will fall asleep.要理解其中原因,你首先需要了解核心体温和睡眠之间的关系。白天,人的平均体温为37℃。但到了晚上,人们在六到七个小时的睡眠中,核心体温会下降1.2℃。事实证明,核心体温的逐渐下降是入睡和保持睡眠这一复杂的神经生物学行为的关键。核心体温的下降速度越快,你就越快入睡。One of the ways that your body regulates its temperature is through blood vessels in your skin. If the brain decides the body is too hot, it will widen blood vessels, redistributing warmer blood from the body's core through the rest of the body to cool it down. If the body is too cold, the brain signals the opposite reaction, restricting the flow of blood to the surface.身体调节体温的方法之一是通过皮肤中的血管。如果大脑认为身体太热,会扩张血管,将温暖的血液从身体核心器官重新输送到其他部位,使其降温。如果身体太冷,大脑则会发出相反的信号,限制血液流向体表。The palms of your hands and solesof your feet are the body's most efficient heat exchangers, since they are hairless and less insulatedthan other skin surfaces. Researchers have shown that warming the feet before going to sleep using a warm foot bath or by wearing socks promotes vasodilation, which in turn lowers the body's core temperature faster than going to sleep with cold, bare feet. This can be especially critical during chilly weather when the feet can get so cold that tossing and turningthroughout the night becomes inevitable. 手掌和脚底是身体最有效的散热器,因为与其他部位的皮肤相比,手掌和脚底光滑无毛、绝缘性差。研究人员表明,睡前泡脚或穿袜子暖脚可以促进血管扩张,这样会比赤着冷脚睡觉更快地降低身体的核心温度。在寒冷的天气里,这一点尤为重要。如果手脚长时间捂不热,人们就会辗转反侧难以入眠。In addition to that, wearing socks can enhance our blood circulation.From heart failure to strokes and other life-threatening medical conditions, the lack of proper blood circulation can be detrimentalto your health in diverse ways. The good news is that sleeping in socks canramp up the supply of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to every part of the body, thus which keep the heart, liver, kidneys, and other important organs working at optimum levels.除此之外,穿着袜子睡觉有助于促进血液循环。血液循环不好会以多种方式损害人的健康,造成心力衰竭、中风等疾病,危及生命。但穿着袜子睡觉可以增加身体各个部位的血液、氧气和营养供应,从而使得心脏、肝脏、肾脏和其他重要器官保持最佳状态。【VOCABULARY】1.humv.活跃,繁忙2.dipn.(暂时的) 下降3.neurobiological adj.神经生物学的4.sole n.脚掌5.insulatedadj. 有隔热(或隔音、绝缘)保护的6.vasodilation n. 血管舒张7.tossing and turning辗转反侧;翻来覆去难以入睡8.detrimentaladj. 有害的,不利的9.ramp up增加; 使增加(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 褪黑素与睡眠

褪黑素与睡眠What Is Melatonin - and Should You Take It to Fall Asleep?刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTMelatonin is a hormone, often called the hormone of darkness, simply because melatonin tells your brain and your body that it’s nighttime and that it’s time to sleep. Melatonin is naturally produced by your brain, and it’s released by a very small gland deep within your brain called the pineal gland. However, you can also buy melatonin in certain countries, and some people will try to use it as a sleep aid. But melatonin isn’t quite as effective as you may think.For example, if you pull together all of the recent scientific studies on sleep and melatonin, which is a technique that we call a meta-analysis, we’ve discovered that melatonin only increases the speed with which you fall asleep by 3.9 minutes and only increases the quality of your sleep, what we call your sleep efficiency, by just 2.2 percent.And this is very understandable since the role of melatonin is primarily in regulating the timing of your sleep, rather than being involved in the generation of sleep itself. That’s down to a very different set of brain mechanisms. It’s also important to understand that melatonin is not well regulated as a supplement in several countries. As a result, the purity and the strength of melatonin that you buy is often unreliable.So if you’re looking to optimize your sleep, it’s best to focus on the basics. The things that we know make a real difference, things such as regularity, keeping your bedroom cool at night, getting darkness in the evening, and, for example, trying to dim down half of the lights in your house in the last hour before bed. And then, reverse-engineering this by getting plenty of natural daylight in the morning hours. And finally try to get some form of physical activity each day.These things are much more likely to help your sleep, rather than looking to melatonin for some kind of sleep assistance.VOCABULARY1. melatonin n. 褪黑激素2. hormone n. 激素;荷尔蒙。例如:a hormone imbalance 激素失调3. gland n. an organ in a person's or an animal's body that produces a substance for the body to use. There are many different glands in the body. 腺。例如:a snake's poison glands 蛇的毒腺4. pineal n. (anatomy 解) a small organ in the brain that releases a hormone 松果腺QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.1. Melatonin tells your brain and your body that it’s nighttime and that it’s time to sleep.2. Melatonin is naturally produced by your brain, and it is released by a very small gland deep within your brain called the pineal gland.3. You can buy melatonin in all countries, and some people will try to use it as a sleep aid.4. Melatonin isn’t quite as effective as you may think.5. Melatonin only increases the speed of falling asleep by 2.2 minutes and only increases the quality of your sleepby just 3.9 percent.6. The role of melatonin is primarily in regulating the generation of sleep itself, rather than being involved in the timing of your sleep.7. Regularity, keeping your bedroom warm at night, getting darkness in the evening, andtrying to dim down half of the lights in your house in the last hour before bed are much more likely to help your sleep.8. Getting plenty of natural daylight in the evening hours is much more likely to help your sleep.9. Trying to get some form of physical activity each day is much more likely to help your sleep.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.(T) 1. Melatonin tells your brain and your body that it’s nighttime and that it’s time to sleep.(T) 2. Melatonin is naturally produced by your brain, and it is released by a very small gland deep within your brain called the pineal gland.(F) 3. You can buy melatonin in all countries, and some people will try to use it as a sleep aid. (正确表达)You can buy melatonin in certain countries, and some people will try to use it as a sleep aid.(T) 4. Melatonin isn’t quite as effective as you may think.(F) 5. Melatonin only increases the speed of falling asleep by 2.2 minutes and only increases the quality of your sleep by just 3.9 percent. (正确表达)Melatonin only increases the speed of falling asleep by 3.9 minutes and only increases the quality of your sleep by just 2.2 percent.(F) 6. The role of melatonin is primarily in regulating the generation of sleep itself, rather than being involved in the timing of your sleep.(正确表达)The role of melatonin is primarily in regulating the timing of your sleep, rather than being involved in the generation of sleep itself.(F) 7. Regularity, keeping your bedroom warm at night, getting darkness in the evening, and trying to dim down half of the lights in your house in the last hour before bed are much more likely to help your sleep.(正确表达)Regularity, keeping your bedroom cool at night, getting darkness in the evening, and trying to dim down half of the lights in your house in the last hour before bed are much more likely to help your sleep.(F) 8. Getting plenty of natural daylight in the evening hours is much more likely to help your sleep.(正确表达)Getting plenty of natural daylight in the morning hours is much more likely to help your sleep.(T) 9. Trying to get some form of physical activity each day is much more likely to help your sleep.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 如何成为一个有趣的人?

如何成为一个有趣的人?How to Be Interesting?刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTMany of us crave to be more interesting people. The question is: how might we become so?We rightly tend to associate being ‘interesting’ with achieving difference from the norm: with being able to serve up some unusual and intriguing stories and ideas. But what might be the best way to lay our hands on these?One prestigious thesis tells us that we should try our best to root out new and well-reviewed books and articles, travel to remote places and be friend people who are prominent in the arts and business.This correctly latches on to something - that we should aim to be different - but it entirely overlooks that, before we’ve ever read a single book, gone to any foreign country or met any Nobel Prize laureates, we are all compellingly different anyway. The problem is that we just don’t allow ourselves to come across as such.To get a taste for this pre-existing level of originality, imagine if we placed a microphone in any of our minds and listened closely in on the chatter.We would quickly find the most surprising, and authentically gripping information: we’d realise that we were attracted to some very unexpected people, often just the sort we weren’t supposed to have any feelings for. We’d realise that we had some hilariously personal (and shocking) takes on politics and society - and that we didn’t agree with most of the standard lines proposed to us by the media. Our anxieties, fears, hopes and excitements would show a properly distinctive and captivating pattern.We are - though we try so hard never to admit this to ourselves, let alone anyone else - already a real character.We understand this point in relation to children. Every child under seven is fascinating. They almost never do anything interesting in the outside world, but it’s the honest, uncensored way in which they report on their inner lives that guarantees their interest. When they chit-chat about their granny or their teacher or their take on their dad, we’re open-mouthed.We were once fascinating, too, before we got overly worried about seeming normal.There are of course some things we should - as we grow up - take care not to mention to spare others hurt, but a lot fewer than we think. When we next fear coming across as dull, we need only lean in more closely on the data from our deep selves: we should, and the habit may require a little conscious effort to develop, get in touch with what we actually believe. What emerges may sound odd, but it is also liable to be hugely charming, warm-hearted and comforting - and a lot closer to what people around the table deep down feel too than what was printed in today’s newspaper.Everyone is interesting. So-called interesting people are simply those who’ve allowed themselves to listen in on and share with others a selection of what is really going on in their minds.They have not allowed self-hatred and self-suspicion to block them from disclosing their reality. They have been confident enough to imagine that the truth about themselves could be a pleasure for others to hear - and, with a few obvious caveats, it almost certainly will be.VOCABULARY1. crave v. to have a very strong desire for sth. 渴望;热望。例如:She has always craved excitement. 她总渴望刺激。2. prestigious adj. respected and admired as very important or of very high quality 有威望的;声誉高的。例如:a prestigious award 赫赫有名的奖项3. latch on (to sb. / sth.): to develop a strong interest in sth. 对……产生浓厚的兴趣。例如:She always latches on to the latest craze. 她总是对最新时尚有浓厚的兴趣。4. laureate n. a person who has been given an official honour or prize for sth. important they have achieved 荣誉获得者;获奖者。例如:a Nobel laureate 诺贝尔奖获得者5. captivating adj. taking all your attention; very attractive and interesting 迷人的;有魅力的;有吸引力的。(同义词)enchanting 例如:He found her captivating. 他发觉她很迷人。6. chit-chat n. (informal) conversation about things that are not important 闲聊;聊天;闲谈。(同义词)chat7. caveat n. (formal, from Latin) a warning that particular things need to be considered before sth. can be done 警告;告诫QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.1. All of us crave to be more interesting people.2. One prestigious thesis tells us that we should try our best to root out new and well-reviewed books and articles, travel to remote places and befriend people who are prominent in the arts and science.3. To get a taste for this pre-existing level of originality, imagine if we placed a mobilephone in any of our minds and listened closely in on the chatter.4. Every child under eight is fascinating.5. We were once fascinating, too, after we got overly worried about seeming normal.6. So-called interesting people are simply those who’ve allowed themselves to listen in on and share with others a selection of what is really going on in their minds.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.(F) 1. All of us crave to be more interesting people.(正确表达)Many of us crave to be more interesting people.(F) 2. One prestigious thesis tells us that we should try our best to root out new and well-reviewed books and articles, travel to remote places and befriend people who are prominent in the arts and science.(正确表达)One prestigious thesis tells us that we should try our best to root out new and well-reviewed books and articles, travel to remote places and befriend people who are prominent in the arts and business.(F) 3. To get a taste for this pre-existing level of originality, imagine if we placed a mobilephone in any of our minds and listened closely in on the chatter.(正确表达)To get a taste for this pre-existing level of originality, imagine if we placed a microphone in any of our minds and listened closely in on the chatter.(F) 4. Every child under eight is fascinating.(正确表达)Every child under seven is fascinating.(F) 5. We were once fascinating, too, after we got overly worried about seeming normal.(正确表达)We were once fascinating, too, before we got overly worried about seeming normal.(T) 6. So-called interesting people are simply those who’ve allowed themselves to listen in on and share with others a selection of what is really going on in their minds.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 增值税

增值税What is VAT?刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTHi, I’m Alex. Wanna catch a movie? Now, I know what you’re thinking. I clicked to watch a video about value added tax, not movies. Well, taxes and movies have more in common than you might think. They both generate revenue. They can be really complicated, and some are just blockbusters. Like our old friend, Value Added Tax - also known as VAT or a goods and services tax. So how do value added taxes work? Let me explain with popcorn. Obviously.The corn starts out in a field with the farmer growing his crop. He sells it to a company that takes the corn and puts it in fancy packaging. Then, that company sells the packaged products to the cinema and ultimately to the customer.Now, let’s rewind and watch that again. And this time, let’s assume that the country where all this is taking place has a 10% value added tax. Here’s how that works. Our farmer sells his popcorn for $10, but the packaging company buying it, they actually pay him $11. So why the extra dollar? Because that’s the 10% VAT. That same thing happens again when the company sells the packaged popcorn to the cinema for a profit. So now the price is $15. But with the added 10% VAT, the cinema actually pays $16 and fifty cents. And then finally, the cinema sells the popcorn to the customer for $20. And that customer, once the VAT has been added, is paying $22.So far, so good. But here’s the added ingredient that advocates of VAT say makes the system really work. And that’s tax credit for businesses. The tax credit is just an amount that a business can subtract from the VAT it owes the government. VAT makes it so that while everyone on the supply chain pays their 10% in tax, they also get tax credits for whatever’s already been paid by those selling to them. So across the whole process, it’s a flat rate of 10%. In the end, only the consumers actually pay the VAT since they aren’t granted a credit.Oh, great, it’s starting! Let’s go!So the thing is, so the thing is... Let’s take this somewhere else.You may have noticed how popular that handsome actor was. Real star power. Well, that’s kind of like value added taxes. They’re one of the biggest sources of tax revenue in the world. More than 160 countries have a VAT. Why? Well, there’s less tax evasion. VATs are a built-in cost, so each business isn’t just collecting the tax themselves, so they’re motivated to report their taxes honestly to get those tax credits. And it’s important that they do. While VAT rates are different in each country, the average VAT raises around a third of a country’s tax revenue. So it’s an important source of funding for everything from improving our infrastructure, and countering climate change, to creating equality, and improving health and social safety nets.But just as with any movie, VATs have their critics. Some say that having a VAT is unfair to poorer people because they spend most of their income, so they face a higher burden. But a lot of those concerns can be answered by using the money from VAT to help the most vulnerable. Some argue that reducing the VAT rate on basic food could be a solution, but it ends up benefitting those who don’t need it and makes VAT collection more complex. That can be avoided by making sure that there’s a single universal VAT rate and using progressive income taxes and cash transfers to support poorer households.And that’s VAT. Cut! Feels like we could have gone for more of a Hollywood ending, right? That’s VAT.VOCABULARY1.revenue n. the money that a government receives from taxes or that an organization, etc. receives from its business 财政收入;税收收入。例如:a shortfall in tax revenue 税收收入不足2.blockbuster n. (informal) something very successful, especially a very successful book or film/movie 一鸣惊人的事物;(尤指)非常成功的书(或电影)。例如:a Hollywood blockbuster 一部好莱坞大片3. rewind v. to make a tape in a cassette player, etc. go backwards 倒带;倒片4. grant v. to agree to give sb. what they ask for, especially formal or legal permission to do sth.(尤指正式地或法律上)同意,准予,允许5. evasion n. the act of avoiding sb. or of avoiding sth. that you are supposed to do 躲避;规避;逃避;回避6. infrastructure n. the basic systems and services that are necessary for a country or an organization to run smoothly, for example buildings, transport and water and power supplies (国家或机构的)基础设施,基础建设7. vulnerable adj. weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally (身体上或感情上)脆弱的,易受……伤害的。例如:to be vulnerable to attack 易受攻击QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Hi, I’m Alex. Wanna catch a movie? Now, I know what you’re thinking. I clicked to watch a video about value added tax, not movies. Well, taxes and movies have more in common than you might think. They both generate (Q1) _____________. They can be really complicated, and some are just blockbusters. Like our old friend, Value Added Tax - also known as VATor a goods and services tax. So how do value added taxes work? Let me explain with (Q2) ______________. Obviously.The corn starts out in a field with the farmer growing his crop. He sells it to a company that takes the corn and puts it in fancy packaging. Then, that company sells the packaged products to the cinema and ultimately to the (Q3) ________________.Now, let’s rewind and watch that again. And this time, let’s assume that the country where all this is taking place has a 10% value added tax. Here’s how that works. Our farmer sells his popcorn for $10, but the packaging company buying it, they actually pay him $11. So why the extra dollar? Because that’s the 10% VAT. That same thing happens again when the company sells the packaged popcorn to the cinema for a (Q4) ______________. So now the price is $15. But with the added 10% VAT, the cinema actually pays $16 and fifty cents. And then finally, the cinema sells the popcorn to the customer for $20. And that customer, once the VAT has been added, is paying $22.So far, so good. But here’s the added ingredient that advocates of VAT say makes the system really work. And that’s (Q5) _____________ for businesses. The tax credit is just an amount that a business can subtract from the VAT it owes the government. VAT makes it so that while everyone on the supply chain pays their 10% in tax, they also get tax credits for whatever’s already been paid by those selling to them. So across the whole process, it’s a flat rate of 10%. In the end, only the consumers actually pay the VAT since they aren’t granted a credit.Oh, great, it’s starting! Let’s go!So the thing is, so the thing is... Let’s take this somewhere else.You may have noticed how popular that handsome actor was. Real star power. Well, that’s kind of like value added taxes. They’re one of the biggest sources of tax revenue in the world. More than 160 countries have a VAT. Why? Well, there’s less (Q6) ______________. VATs are a built-in cost, so each business isn’t just collecting the tax themselves, so they’re motivated to report their taxes honestly to get those tax credits. And it’s important that they do. While VAT rates are different in each country, the average VAT raises around a third of a country’s tax revenue. So it’s an important source of funding for everything from improving our (Q7) ________________, and countering climate change, to creating equality, and improving health and social safety nets.But just as with any movie, VATs have their critics. Some say that having a VAT is unfair to poorer people because they spend most of their income, so they face a higher burden. But a lot of those concerns can be answered by using the money from VAT to help the most (Q8) ___________. Some argue that reducing the VAT rate on (Q9) ___________ could be a solution, but it ends up benefitting those who don’t need it and makes VAT collection more (Q10) ______________. That can be avoided by making sure that there’s a single universal VAT rate and using progressive income taxes and cash transfers to support poorer households.And that’s VAT. Cut! Feels like we could have gone for more of a Hollywood ending, right? That’s VAT.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Hi, I’m Alex. Wanna catch a movie? Now, I know what you’re thinking. I clicked to watch a video about value added tax, not movies. Well, taxes and movies have more in common than you might think. They both generate (Q1) revenue. They can be really complicated, and some are just blockbusters. Like our old friend, Value Added Tax - also known as VAT or a goods and services tax. So how do value added taxes work? Let me explain with (Q2) popcorn. Obviously.The corn starts out in a field with the farmer growing his crop. He sells it to a company that takes the corn and puts it in fancy packaging. Then, that company sells the packaged products to the cinema and ultimately to the (Q3) customer.Now, let’s rewind and watch that again. And this time, let’s assume that the country where all this is taking place has a 10% value added tax. Here’s how that works. Our farmer sells his popcorn for $10, but the packaging company buying it, they actually pay him $11. So why the extra dollar? Because that’s the 10% VAT. That same thing happens again when the company sells the packaged popcorn to the cinema for a (Q4) profit. So now the price is $15. But with the added 10% VAT, the cinema actually pays $16 and fifty cents. And then finally, the cinema sells the popcorn to the customer for $20. And that customer, once the VAT has been added, is paying $22.So far, so good. But here’s the added ingredient that advocates of VAT say makes the system really work. And that’s (Q5) tax credit for businesses. The tax credit is just an amount that a business can subtract from the VAT it owes the government. VAT makes it so that while everyone on the supply chain pays their 10% in tax, they also get tax credits for whatever’s already been paid by those selling to them. So across the whole process, it’s a flat rate of 10%. In the end, only the consumers actually pay the VAT since they aren’t granted a credit.Oh, great, it’s starting! Let’s go!So the thing is, so the thing is... Let’s take this somewhere else.You may have noticed how popular that handsome actor was. Real star power. Well, that’s kind of like value added taxes. They’re one of the biggest sources of tax revenue in the world. More than 160 countries have a VAT. Why? Well, there’s less (Q6) tax evasion. VATs are a built-in cost, so each business isn’t just collecting the tax themselves, so they’re motivated to report their taxes honestly to get those tax credits. And it’s important that they do. While VAT rates are different in each country, the average VAT raises around a third of a country’s tax revenue. So it’s an important source of funding for everything from improving our (Q7) infrastructure, and countering climate change, to creating equality, and improving health and social safety nets.But just as with any movie, VATs have their critics. Some say that having a VAT is unfair to poorer people because they spend most of their income, so they face a higher burden. But a lot of those concerns can be answered by using the money from VAT to help the most (Q8) vulnerable. Some argue that reducing the VAT rate on (Q9) basic food could be a solution, but it ends up benefitting those who don’t need it and makes VAT collection more (Q10) complex. That can be avoided by making sure that there’s a single universal VAT rate and using progressive income taxes and cash transfers to support poorer households.And that’s VAT. Cut! Feels like we could have gone for more of a Hollywood ending, right? That’s VAT.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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