带练习 | 硬化道路有助于减排

带练习 | 硬化道路有助于减排

2.3分钟 209 -1wpm

Hardening the roads helps to save energy

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Hardening the roads helps to save energy

硬化道路有助于减排

刘立军 供稿

 

TRANSCRIPT

 

This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.

 

When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more energy than striding down a sidewalk  because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads.

 

"The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow indentation or, you know, deflection in the pavement  and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."

 

Jeremy Gregory, a sustainability scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved  and greenhouse gases avoided  by simply hardening the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades  that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.

 

To put those emissions savings into context - that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground  or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.

 

As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could mix small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.

 

This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual hurdles. "You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also driver behavior, which involves millions and millions of people  as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our pavements. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."

 

And when it comes to retrofitting our streets and highways - those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.

 

Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

1. stride v. to walk with long steps in a particular direction 大步走;阔步行走。例如:She came striding along to meet me. 她大步走上前来迎接我。

2. sidewalk n.人行道

3. indentation n. a cut or mark on the edge or surface of sth. 缺口;凹陷;凹痕。例如:The horse's hooves left deep indentations in the mud. 马蹄在泥地里留下了深深的蹄印。

4. deflection n.(尤指击中某物后)突然转向,偏斜,偏离。例如:the angle of deflection 偏斜度

5. pavement n. (North American English) the surface of a road 路面。例如:Two cars skidded on the icy pavement. 两辆汽车在结冰的路面上打滑。

6. stiffen v.(使)变硬

7. offset v. 抵消;弥补;补偿

8. nanotubes 纳米管

9. asphalt n. 沥青;柏油

10. retrofit v. 给机器设备装配(新部件);翻新;改型

 

QUESTIONS

 

Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.

 

This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.

 

When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more (Q1) __________________ than striding down a sidewalk  because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads.

 

"The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow (Q2) __________________ or, you know, deflection in the pavement  and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."

 

Jeremy Gregory, a (Q3) ________________________ scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved  and greenhouse gases avoided  by simply (Q4) ______________ the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades  that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.

 

To put those (Q5) _________________________________into context  that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground  or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.

 

As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could (Q6) _________________ small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.

 

This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual (Q7) __________________. "You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also (Q8) _________________, which involves millions and millions of people  as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our (Q9) ________________________. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."

 

And when it comes to retrofitting our (Q10) __________________________________  those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.

 

Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.

 

KEY

 

Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.

 

This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.

 

When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more (Q1) energy than striding down a sidewalk  because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for  vehicles driving on roads.

 

"The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow (Q2)indentation or, you know, deflection in the pavement  and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."

 

Jeremy Gregory, a (Q3) sustainability scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved  and greenhouse gases avoided  by simply (Q4) hardening the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades  that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.

 

To put those (Q5) emissions savings into context - that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground  or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.

 

As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could (Q6) mix small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.

 

This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual (Q7)hurdles"You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also (Q8) driver behavior, which involves millions and millions of people  as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our (Q9) pavements. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."

 

And when it comes to retrofitting our (Q10) streets and highways  those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.

 

Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.

 

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  • 时长:2.3分钟
  • 语速:-1wpm
  • 来源:刘立军 2021-07-08