双语阅读 | 人的性格会随着年龄增长而改变吗?

人的性格会随着年龄增长而改变吗?Do People’s Personalities Change with Age?林晓洁 供稿People go through a host of changes intheir life — jobs, haircuts and relationships that come and go. But as people grow older, do their personalities change?人的一生会经历许多改变——工作、发型和人际关系的更替,但人的性格也会随着年龄增长而改变吗?Personality is the pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviors unique to a person. People tend to think of personality as fixed. But according to psychologists, that's not how it works. "Personality is adevelopmental phenomenon. It's not just a staticthing that you're stuck with and can't get over," said Brent Roberts, a psychologist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.性格是一个人特有的思维、感觉和行为模式。人们往往认为性格是固定不变的,但心理学家表示事实并非如此。来自伊利诺伊大学香槟分校的心理学家布伦特·罗伯茨说:“性格是一种发展中的现象。它不是你无法改变或摆脱的静态事物。”But in the short term, change can be nearly imperceptible. Longitudinalstudies, in which researchers survey the personalities of participants regularly over many years, suggest that our personality is actually stable on shorter time scales.但从短期来看,性格的改变几乎是察觉不到的。在多年的纵向研究中,研究人员对参与者的性格进行了定期调查。结果显示,人的性格在较短时间内确实是稳定的。Earlier temperamentseems to affect later life experience. For example, one 1995 study published in the journal Child Developmentfollowed children from the age of 3 until the age of 18. The researchers found, for instance, that children who were shyer and more withdrawn tended to grow into unhappier teenagers.早年的性情似乎会对以后的生活经历造成影响。举例来说,1995年一项发表在《儿童发展》期刊上的研究对3-18岁的儿童进行了跟踪调查。研究人员发现,比较害羞内向的孩子到了青少年时期通常更不快乐。But those decades add up. Throughout all those years, our personality is changing, but slowly, Roberts said. "It's something that's subtle," he added. You don't notice it on that five-to-10-yeartime scale, but in the long term, it becomes pronounced. In 1960, psychologists surveyed over 440,000 high school students. The students answered questions about everything from how they reacted to emotional situations to how efficiently they got work done. Fifty years later, researchers tracked down 1,952 of these former students and gave them the same survey. The results, published in 2018 in the Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, found that in their 60s, participants scored much higher than they had as teenagers on questions measuring calmness, self-confidence, leadership and social sensitivity.但是一个又一个10年会对性格产生影响。罗伯茨称,我们的性格会随时间改变,不过这种改变的过程是缓慢的。他补充道:“这种变化很微妙。”5到10年内你察觉不到,但是长期来看,变化很明显。1960年,心理学家对逾44万名高中生进行了调查。这些学生回答了涉及对情绪状况的反应和完成工作的效率在内的各种问题。50年后,研究人员跟踪调查了1952名当年的学生,并对他们进行了同样的调查。调查结果发表于2018年的《性格与社会心理学杂志》上。结果表明,这些年逾60岁的参与者在评估冷静、自信、领导力和社会敏感性的问卷中的得分比他们青少年时的得分要高得多。Again and again, longitudinal studies have found similar results. Personality tends to get "better" over time. Psychologists call it "the maturity principle." People become more extroverted, emotionally stable, agreeable and conscientious as they grow older. Over the long haul, these changes are often pronounced.各种纵向研究一次又一次地得出了相似的结果。随着时间的流逝,人们的性格通常会“变好”。心理学家将其称之为“成熟法则”。随着年龄增长,人们变得更外向,情绪更稳定,更随和,也更有责任心。长期来看,这些改变往往很明显。Some individuals might change less than others, but in general, the maturity principle applies to everyone. There's good evidence that the average self-control of a 30-year-old is higher than a 20-year-old. At the same time, people who are relatively self-controlled at 18 also tend to be relatively self-controlled at age 30.一些人可能改变得比其他人少,但总体来看,“成熟法则”适用于每个人。有充分证据表明,30岁的人平均自制力高于20岁的人。与此同时,18岁时自制力相对较强的人往往到了30岁自制力也相对较强。So why do our personalities change so much? Evidence suggests it's not because of dramatic life events, such as marriage, the birth of a child or loss of a loved one. Some psychologists suggest these events reinforcepeople’spersonalities as peoplebring theircharacteristics with themto that particular situation.那么,为什么人的性格会改变这么多?证据显示,性格改变不是因为人生大事,比如结婚、孩子出生或失去所爱之人。一些心理学家指出,这些大事会强化性格,因为人们会将自己的性格带入到那个特定的情境中。Instead, changing expectations placed on us — as we adjust to university, the work force, starting a family — slowly wears us in, almost like a pair of shoes, Roberts said. "Over time you are asked in many contexts across life to do things a bit differently," he said. "There's not a user manual for how to act, but there's very clear implicit norms for how we should behave in these situations. So we adapt."罗伯茨指出,在我们适应大学、职场和成家时,外界对我们期望值的改变在慢慢地打磨我们,就像打磨一双鞋一样。他说:“随着时间的流逝,人生的许多境遇都会要求你用与以往不同的方式去做事。没有用户手册来指导你如何行动,但是有非常清楚的不成文规范告诉你在这些情况下应该如何表现。于是我们就改变自己去适应。”【VOCABULARY】1.static adj. 静态的2.imperceptible adj.察觉不到的3.longitudinal adj.纵向的4.temperament n.性情5.pronounced adj.明显的6.reinforcev. 强化(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网享有)

双语阅读 | 养狗者和养猫者的性格差异

Personality Differences Between Dog and Cat Owners养狗者和养猫者的性格差异王淑怡 供稿Are you a cat person or a dog person?The whole cats versus dogs sagahas been going on forever. We tend to use the answer to the aforementionedquestion to separate people into two different groups: cat people or dog people. In the past, it’s never really been clear just how much someone’s choice of pet actually says about their personality or their lifestyle.你是喜欢猫还是喜欢狗?猫狗大战的故事一再上演。根据前面这个问题的答案,我们往往会把人分成两类:爱猫之人和爱狗之人。究竟人们对宠物的选择在多大程度上体现了自己的性格和生活方式?在过去,这个问题好像一直没有搞清楚。According to an Associated Press-Petside.com poll, 74 percent of their test sample like dogs a lot, and only 41 percent like cats a lot.Some people seem to likeeither dogs or cats and dislikethe other species. Fifteen percent of the adults questioned said they disliked cats a lot, while the number who said they disliked dogs a lot was only 2 percent.美联社和宠物网站Petside.com联合发起的调查显示,在被调查的人群中,74%喜欢狗,而只有41%喜欢猫。有些人似乎只爱一种而讨厌另一种。15%的成年被调查者表示他们很讨厌猫,而只有2%表示很讨厌狗。Certainly, the relationship between cats and humans has always been quite different than the relationship between dogs and people.There are sound reasons to suspect that the preference for dogs or cats reflects some underlying human personality differences. In fact, the behaviors of both species havebeenkept from their heritage prior to domestication.无可否认,猫与人的关系和狗与人的关系大不相同。我们有充分理由相信,对猫狗的偏爱反映了一些潜在的人类性格差异。事实上,这两个物种的行为习性历来如此,被驯化后也没有改变。In the wild, cats are usually solitary hunters and often are active mostly at night. In contrast, wild caninesare usually sociable pack animals that work in groups and are active between dawn and dusk. Our domestic dogs retain this need for social interaction to the degree that without a master and a family, a dog seems unhappy — almost lost. Dogs will intrude on a person’s ongoing activities if they are feeling lonely and want some company or play.在野外,猫通常单独狩猎,往往在夜间活动,而野生犬科动物则总是成群结队,在白天行动。家养的宠物狗在很大程度上仍然保有这种社会性需求,如果没有主人和家庭,它们会看起来很不开心——甚至可以说很失落。一旦它们感到孤单,想要人陪伴或玩耍的时候,它们就会打断你正在进行的活动,求取关注。Cats, on the other hand, are often invisible during the day, seeming only to appear in the evening. Cats will occasionally engage in social activities or play with people, but their interest is limited. Usually, after only a few minutes, cats will abandon the game and wander away. Dogs, on the other hand, will often engage in play, like fetching a thrown ball, for hours at a time, and it is usually the human that quits the game first.猫则正好相反,经常白天不见踪影,傍晚才会露面,虽然偶尔也会参加社交活动或与人一起玩耍,但总是兴趣不大。通常过不了几分钟,猫就会放弃游戏,转身溜走。狗则玩得很投入,扔球捡球的游戏一次可以玩上几个小时,往往是人玩厌了,狗还没厌。Apsychologisthasconducted a study which involved 6,149 people, aged 16 to 94. The results showed that people who owned only cats seemed to be somewhat different than dog owners, or people who owned both dogs and cats, in terms of their personalities. People who own both dogs and cats seem to be much like the people who own only dogs. What’s more, cat owners were one-third more likely to live alone than dog owners and twice as likely to live in an apartment or flat. Being married, living in a house, and having children living in the home are all factors that are more likely for dog owners than cat owners. A single woman was the most likely individual to have a cat. Of the people who grew up in a house with cats as pets, 47 percent were likely to have cats today, while only 11 percent of people whose childhood years were spent in a house with a dog have only a cat as a pet.心理学家曾进行过一项研究,对象涉及6149人,年龄在16到94岁不等。结果显示,如果一个人只养猫,那么他的性格似乎和养狗或者猫狗都养的人有所不同,而猫狗都养的人则更像养狗的人。除此之外,养猫的人比养狗的人独居的可能性高出三分之一,而住在公寓的可能性则高出两倍。比起养猫的人,养狗的人更可能是是已婚人士,住在独栋房屋里,家里有孩子。单身女性则最有可能养猫。住在独栋房屋中,与宠物猫一起长大的人们,有47%现在继续养猫,而小时候屋里养狗的人则只有11%现在只养猫。As forthe personality profile,people who own only cats tend to be relatively introvertedand also reasonably cool.Cat owners are relatively low in dominance. People who are high on dominance are generally described as being forceful, assertive, persistent,self-assured, and self-confident. They are the people who stand out in social gatherings, as opposed to people who are low in dominance that come across as being more timid, bashful, shy, and unaggressive. At last, cat owners appear to be fairly trusting. People high on this dimension are often described as obliging, modest, straightforward, and “good sports”.People low on this dimension can be more suspicious and manipulative. In conclusion, dog owners are more social, interactive, and accepting, and cat owners are more introverted, self-contained, and less sociable.在性格特征上,养猫的人相对更内向也更冷淡。他们的支配欲相对较低。支配欲高的人比较强势、果敢、固执和自信,在社会交往中表现更突出。相比之下,支配欲低的人则比较怯懦、害羞,攻击性低。最后,养猫的人还很容易相信别人。容易相信他人的人往往被描述为乐于助人、谦逊直率、“输得起”;而不容易相信他人的人则更加多疑,喜欢左右别人。总的来说,养狗的人更喜欢社会交际,与人互动,也更易接受别人的意见;养猫者则更内向,特立独行,不善交际。No matter what kind of pet you own, dog and cat owners both share the most important trait: a love of and a feeling of great responsibility for their pets. It’s your pet, but you are its all.不论你是养猫还是养狗,都有一个最重要的共同点,那就是对宠物的热爱和强烈的责任感。虽然它只是你的宠物,但你却是它的全部。【VOCABULARY】1.sagan.长篇故事2.aforementionedadj.上述的;此前提及的3.domestication n.驯养;教化4.caninen. 犬科动物5.introvertedadj. 内向的6.self-assuredadj.自信的;胸有成竹的7.bashfuladj. 害羞的;腼腆的8.obligingadj.乐于助人的;热情的9.good sportsn.输得起的运动员10.manipulativeadj.善于操纵的;会控制的;会摆布人的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 肥胖问题不能只看体重

肥胖问题不能只看体重Obesity is not just a matter of weight林晓洁 供稿Obesity should be defined by a person's health - not just by their weight, says a new Canadian clinical guideline.加拿大的一份新临床指南称,肥胖与否应该视健康状况而定,而不只是体重。The guideline, which was published in the Canadian Medical Association Journalon August 4, 2020, specifically admonishedweight-related discriminationagainst patients in the health system. It also advises doctors to go beyond simply recommending diet and exercise. Instead, they should focus on the root causes of weight gain and take a holisticapproach to health.2020年8月4日发表在《加拿大医学协会期刊》上的这一指南特别对医疗系统中针对肥胖症患者的歧视发出了警告。该指南还建议医生不仅仅就膳食和锻炼方面给出医嘱,还应该关注肥胖的根源,从整体的视角来看待健康问题。Ximena· Ramos-Salas, the director of research and policy at Obesity Canada and one of the guideline's authors, said research shows many doctors discriminate against obese patients, and that can lead to worse health outcomes irrespective of their weight. 该指南的作者之一、加拿大肥胖组织的研究和政策主任西米娜·拉莫斯·萨拉斯称,研究显示许多医生对肥胖症患者存在歧视,而这种歧视会令患者的健康恶化,无论他们的体重是多少。Although the latest advice still recommends using diagnosticcriteria like the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, it also acknowledges their clinical limitations and says doctors should focus more on how weight impacts a person's health.尽管该指南仍建议人们采用身体质量指数和腰围作为诊断标准,但它也承认了临床治疗的局限性,并表示医生应该更多地关注体重是如何影响一个人的健康的。Small reductions in weight of about 3-5% can lead to health improvements, and an obese person's "best weight" might not be their "ideal weight" according to BMI, the guideline says. It emphasizes that obesity is a complex, chronic condition that needs lifelong management.这份指南指出,体重微降大约3%到5%就可以改善健康,而且一个肥胖者的“最佳体重”可能不是他们根据身体质量指数算出的“理想体重”。该指南也强调,肥胖是一个需要终生管理的复杂慢性病。"For a long time we've associated obesity as a lifestyle behavior. It's always been with shame and blame," Ms. Ramos-Salas says. "But people living with obesity need supports like people living with any other chronic disease."“长期以来,我们一直将肥胖与生活方式关联在一起。肥胖也常常伴随着耻辱和责备。”拉莫斯·萨拉斯女士称,“但肥胖症患者和其他慢性病患者一样需要获得支持。”Weight off is often difficult because the brain will compensate by feeling hungrier, thus encouraging people to eat more. Many studies have shown that most people who lose weight on a diet gain it back. Physicians should work with the obesity patient to focus on health goals that matter to them, instead of just telling them to cut calories.减肥通常很困难,因为大脑会通过饥饿感来补偿自身,从而鼓励人们吃更多东西。许多研究显示,大多数通过节食来减肥的人后来体重又反弹了。因此,医生应该和肥胖症患者一起关注对其有意义的健康目标,而不只仅仅是让患者少吃。Soinstead of simply advising patients to "eat less and move more", the guideline encourages doctors to provide supports such as psychological therapy, medication and bariatricsurgery like gastric-bypasssurgery. But the guideline doesn't completely abandon traditional weight-loss advice. "All individuals, regardless of body size or composition, would benefit from adopting a healthy, well-balanced eating pattern and engaging in regular physical activity," it says.因此,这一指南并没有简单地建议肥胖患者“少吃多动”,而是鼓励医生提供心理治疗、药物治疗和胃绕道手术等肥胖症治疗支持。不过该指南也没有完全舍弃传统的减肥建议。它指出:“所有个体,无论是什么体型或体质,都能从健康平衡的饮食习惯和定期运动中获益。”【VOCABULARY】1.admonish v. 警告 2.discrimination n. 歧视3.holistic adj. 整体的4.diagnostic adj. 诊断的5.bariatricadj.肥胖症治疗的6.gastric-bypass n. 胃绕道手术(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 拜登停建特朗普边境墙

拜登停建特朗普边境墙燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】This is VOA news. Via remote, I'm Marissa Melton. U.S. President Joe Biden signed executive orders Tuesday to continue dismantlingformer President Donald Trump's restrictive immigration policies. During the signing, Biden said "I'm not making new law. I'm eliminating bad policy." Biden's immigration plans include an attempt to reunite families that were separated at the U.S.-Mexican border. In the first hours of his presidency two weeks ago, Biden acted to haltconstruction of Trump's $16 billion wall along the border with Mexico and sent a far-reaching immigration bill to Congress. U.S. lawmakers have been stalematedbetween liberalslooking to ease the path to U.S. citizenship and conservativesseeking to stem unauthorized immigration. Biden's immediate focus is on the 3,100-kilometer southern border with Mexico, where Mr. Trump tried to keep thousands of migrants from Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala from entering the United States. Trump led repair and expansion of a border wall and imposed tough detentionand deportationpolicies for those who made it across the desolateborder terrain and into the United States.Amazon.com Inc. on Tuesday said founder Jeff Bezos will step down as CEO and become executive chairman as the company reported its third consecutive record profit and quarterly sales above $100 billion for the first time. Net sales rose to $125.56 billion as consumers turned to the world's largest online retailer for their holiday shopping. Bezos, who started the company 27 years ago, said in a note to employees he would stay engaged in important initiatives but also want the time and energy for other projects. From Washington D.C., you're listening to VOA news.【VOCABULARY】1.dismantlev. to end an organization or system gradually in an organized way (逐渐)废除,取消。2.halt v. to stop; to make sb. / sth. stop (使)停止,停下3.stalematen.a disagreement or a situation in a competition in which neither side is able to win ormake any progress (辩论或竞赛中出现的)僵局,僵持局面。例如:The talks ended in (a)stalemate. 谈判陷入僵局,无果而终。4.liberal n.自由党人,自由主义者5.conservative n.保守党人,保守派6.detention n.the state of being kept in a place, especially a prison, and prevented from leaving 拘留,扣押,监禁7. deportation n. 驱逐出境8.desolate adj.empty and without people, making you feel sad or frightened 无人居住的,荒无人烟的,荒凉的。例如:a bleak and desolate landscape一片荒凉的景色【QUESTIONS】Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. U.S. President Joe Biden signed executive orders Tuesday to dismantle former President Donald Trump's restrictive immigration policies. 2. One of Biden's immigration plans is to reunite farmers that were separated at the U.S.-Mexican border. 3. Biden's immediate focus is on the 3,100-kilometer southern border with Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala. 4. Jeff Bezos is the founder of Amazon.com Inc. 5. Jeff Bezos will step down as executive chairman and become CEO.6. Bezos started the company 29 years ago.【KEY】Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(T) 1. U.S. President Joe Biden signed executive orders Tuesday to dismantle former President Donald Trump's restrictive immigration policies. (F) 2. One of Biden's immigration plans is to reunite farmersthat were separated at the U.S.-Mexican border.(正确表达)One of Biden's immigration plans is to reunite familiesthat were separated at the U.S.-Mexican border. (F) 3. Biden's immediate focus is on the 3,100-kilometer southern border with Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala.(正确表达)Biden's immediate focus is on the 3,100-kilometer southern border with Mexico. (T) 4. Jeff Bezos is the founder of Amazon.com Inc. (F) 5. Jeff Bezos will step down as executive chairman and become CEO.(正确表达)Jeff Bezos will step down as CEO and become executive chairman.(F) 6. Bezos started the company 29 years ago.(正确表达)Bezos started the company 27 years ago.(封面图片来自于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 猫能感染新冠病毒吗?

猫能感染新冠病毒吗?燕山大学 刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Wayt Gibbs.The COVID-19 pandemic has a lot of people stuck at home with their cats - which raises some obvious questions: Can cats catch the new coronavirus from their owners? Can cats spread the disease to each other? And can people get infected by their cats?Scientists have been so busy studying human-to-human transmission of the virus that few, so far, have looked at how it may be able to spread among cats and the humans they live with. But a few preliminary reports within the past few days suggest that cats can catch COVID-19, probably from humans, and then give it to other cats.On April 5, the Bronx Zoo announced that four tigers and three lions have developed symptoms of the disease. Scientists at Cornell University and the USDA tested samples from one of the tigers and confirmed that it was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. And researchers at the University of Illinois looked at the samples and found that the virus in the tiger was genetically indistinguishablefrom strainsseen in humans.So the tiger must have caught this from a zookeeper - which is a little surprising. I mean, I would think six feet would be a minimum safe distance from a tiger under any circumstance. But perhaps someone coughed on her food.COVID-19 doesn't seem to be limited to big cats, either. Two research groups in China recently published studies on house cats in Wuhan and young cats raised in a lab. These preprintshave not yet been peer-reviewed, and this is very early science that may well change with further study. That said, their findings are worrisome.The Wuhan study did blood tests on 102 cats there to see whether any had antibodiesto SAR-CoV-2, which would mean that they had been infected with the virus at some point. Fifteen percent of the cats tested positive. Three of those had been living with people who were diagnosed with COVID-19. The rest of the cats were straysor had been in pet hospitals.The authors write that "immediate action should be implemented to keep a suitable distance between humans and companion animals such as cats, and strict hygiene and quarantine measures should also be carried out for these animals."In a second study, scientists at a high-containment lab for animal diseases control in Harbin, China, deliberately squirted coronavirus into the noses of cats and other kinds of animals to see whether they became infected. In some good news, they did not see the virus taking hold in dogs, pigs, chickens or ducks. But it did replicaterapidly the respiratory tracts of both cats and ferrets.Within a few days after infection, all of the cats they inoculatedstarted shedding virus in their feces. The researchers placed an uninfected cat in a cage adjacent to each infected one. One third of those healthy cats then caught the virus from their sick neighbors.So far, the CDC says, there is no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from their cats. But absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. So until it's clearer whether the virus can leap back from cats to their owners, it would seem smart to keep your cats indoors, to wear gloves and a mask when changing the litter box and to avoid kissing or rubbing noses with your little snookums.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Wayt Gibbs.VOCABULARY1.indistinguishable (from sth.): if two things are indistinguishable , or one is indistinguishable from the other, it is impossible to see any differences between them 无法分辨的;无法区分的。例如:The male of the species is almost indistinguishable from the female.这个物种的雄性和雌性几乎无法分辨。2.strainn. a particular type of plant or animal, or of a disease caused by bacteria, etc. (动、植物的)系,品系,品种;(疾病的)类型。例如:This is only one of the many strains of the disease.这种病有许多类型,这只是其中之一。3. preprintn. 出版前的非正式样本; 预刊本4. worrisome adj.(especially North American English) that makes you worry 令人担心的;使人担忧的5.antibody v.a substance that the body produces in the blood to fight disease, or as a reaction when certain substances are put into the body 抗体(血液中抵抗疾病或当某些物质进入身体时产生反应的物质)6.strayn.an animal that has got lost or separated from its owner or that has no owner 走失的宠物(或家畜);无主的宠物(或家畜)7.replicatev. (formal) to copy sth. exactly 复制8.ferretn.a small aggressive animal with a long thin body, kept for chasing rabbits from their holes, killing rats , etc. 雪貂(身体细长,用以猎兔、捕鼠等)9.inoculate v. to protect a person or an animal from catching a particular disease by injecting them with a mild form of the disease (给……)接种,打预防针10.fecesn.粪,屎11.snookums: (用于称呼小孩或心爱的人) 亲爱的QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. Afew preliminary reports within the past few days suggest that cats can catch COVID-19from humans.2. On April 5, the Bronx Zoo announced that threetigers and fourlions have developed symptoms of the disease. 3. Scientists at Cornell University and the USDA tested samples from one of the lionsand confirmed that it was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. 4. Six feet would be a minimum safe distance from a tiger under any circumstance. 5. COVID-19 seemsto be limited to big cats. 6. Recently, threeresearch groups in China published studies on house cats in Wuhan and young cats raised in a lab. 7. The Harbin study did blood tests on 102 cats to see whether any had antibodies to SAR-CoV-2.8. According to the USDA, there is no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from their cats. KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(F)1. Afew preliminary reports within the past few days suggest that cats can catchCOVID-19from humans.(正确表达)Afew preliminary reports within the past few days suggest that cats can probably catchCOVID-19from humans.(F)2. On April 5, the Bronx Zoo announced that threetigers and fourlions have developed symptoms of the disease.(正确表达)On April 5, the Bronx Zoo announced that four tigers and three lionshave developed symptoms of the disease. (F)3. Scientists at Cornell University and the USDA tested samples from one of the lionsand confirmed that it was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.(正确表达)Scientists at Cornell University and the USDA tested samples from one of the tigersand confirmed that it was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (T)4. Six feet would be a minimum safe distance from a tiger under any circumstance. (F)5. COVID-19 seemstobe limited to big cats.(正确表达)COVID-19 doesn't seem tobe limited to big cats. (F)6. Recently, threeresearch groups in China published studies on house cats in Wuhan and young cats raised in a lab.(正确表达) Recently, tworesearch groups in China published studies on house cats in Wuhan and young cats raised in a lab. (F)7. The Harbinstudy did blood tests on 102 cats to see whether any had antibodies to SAR-CoV-2. (正确表达)The Wuhanstudy did blood tests on 102 cats to see whether any had antibodies to SAR-CoV-2.(F)8. According to the USDA, there is no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from their cats.(正确表达) According to the CDC, there is no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from their cats.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 可以不用还助学贷款了?

可以不用还助学贷款了?燕山大学刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTIs student-loan forgiveness unforgivable in Congress?Even before taking office, president-elect Joe Biden is already facing a political storm among his ideologically diverse base of supporters over the volatileissue of student-debt forgiveness.Roughly 45 million Americans currently hold $1.6 trillion in student debt, with the average student-loan recipient owing between $20,000 and $25,000, according to the Federal Reserve. Among those actively making payments on their debt, the average monthly installment is between $200 and $300. And with 5.3 million more people unemployed than in February, right before the U.S. fell into a pandemic-induced recession, progressives say that student-debt forgiveness could be a boonfor the economy."Student-debt cancellation feels like one of the most accessible Executive actions to stimulate the economy at the moment," says Suzanne Kahn, director of the Education, Jobs and Worker Power program and the Great Democracy Initiative at the liberal Roosevelt Institute.Kahn and others say the move would also help close the wealth gap between white Americans and people of color. Some 90% of Black students and 72% of Latino students take out loans for college vs. just 66% of white students, according to a 2016 analysis from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.But the more moderate faction of Biden's base argues that sweeping student-loan forgiveness doesn't help the people who need aid most. Americans with college degrees, as a whole, have been less devastated by the economic effects of COVID-19 than their noncollege-educated counterparts. A September report from Pew Research Center found that only 12% of people with college degrees were having trouble paying bills as a result of the pandemic, compared with 34% of Americans with a high school diploma or less.Others raise concerns about precedent: if the government wipes out current student loans, future college students may have an incentive to take on debts, they argue, hoping they will also be forgiven. Colleges may in turn be inclined to raise their prices further.In recent weeks, Biden has walked a fine line on the issue, offering support for a bill from House Democrats calling for $10,000 worth of student-loan forgiveness but stopping short of endorsinganything close to a plan championed by Senators Elizabeth Warren and Chuck Schumer to issue $50,000 per borrower through Executive action.What's clear, according to experts on both sides of the aisle, is that economic crises exacerbatethe problem of student debt. The last time the U.S. dipped into a recession, state governments cut their investments in colleges and universities - which, in turn, raised their tuition prices and forced students to take on ever larger loans.That's not sustainable in the long run. It remains to be seen if Biden can arrive at a political solution that is.VOCABULARY1. volatileadj.(of a situation 情况) likely to change suddenly; easily becoming dangerous 可能急剧波动的;不稳定的;易恶化的。例如:a volatile exchange rate剧烈波动的汇率2. recessionn.a difficult time for the economy of a country, when there is less trade and industrial activity than usual and more people are unemployed 经济衰退;经济萎缩。例如:the impact of the current recession on manufacturing时下经济萎缩对制造业的影响3.boonn. boon (to/for sb.) something that is very helpful and makes life easier for you 非常有用的东西;益处。例如:The new software will prove a boon to Internet users. 这种新软件将会对互联网用户大有益处。4.precedent n. an official action or decision that has happened in the past and that is seen as an example or a rule to be followed in a similar situation later 可援用参考的具体例子;实例;范例。例如:The ruling set a precedent for future libel cases. 这项裁决为今后的诽谤案提供了判例。5.endorsev. to say publicly that you support a person, statement or course of action (公开)赞同,支持,认可。例如:I wholeheartedly endorse his remarks. 我真诚地赞同他的话。6.aislen.a passage between rows of seats in a church, theatre, train, etc., or between rows of shelves in a supermarket (教堂、戏院、火车等座位间或超级市场货架间的)走道,过道。例如:an aisle seat (= in a plane)(飞机上)紧靠过道的座位7.exacerbatev.(formal) to make sth. worse, especially a disease or problem 使恶化;使加剧;使加重。例如:The symptoms may be exacerbated by certain drugs. 这些症状可能会因为某些药物而加重。QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Is student-loan forgiveness unforgivable in Congress?Even before taking office, president-elect Joe Biden is already facing (Q1) ____________________ among his ideologically diverse base of supporters over the volatile issue of student-debt forgiveness.Roughly 45 million Americans currently hold $1.6 trillion in (Q2) _______________, with the average student-loan recipient owing between $20,000 and $25,000, according to the Federal Reserve. Among those actively making payments on their debt, the average monthly installment is between $200 and $300. And with 5.3 million more people unemployed than in February, right before the U.S. fell into a pandemic-induced (Q3) _________________, progressives say that student-debt forgiveness could be a boon for the economy."Student-debt cancellation feels like one of the most accessible Executive actions to stimulate the economy at the moment," says Suzanne Kahn, director of the Education, Jobs and Worker Power program and the Great Democracy Initiative at the liberal Roosevelt Institute.Kahn and others say the move would also help (Q4) ______________________________ between white Americans and people of color. Some 90% of Black students and 72% of Latino students take out loans for college vs. just 66% of white students, according to a 2016 analysis from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.But the more moderate faction of Biden's base argues that sweeping student-loan forgiveness doesn't help the people who (Q5) ____________________. Americans with college degrees, as a whole, have been less devastated by the economic effects of COVID-19 than their noncollege-educated counterparts. A September report from Pew Research Center found that only 12% of people with college degrees were having trouble paying bills as a result of the pandemic, compared with 34% of Americans with (Q6) _________________________ or less.Others raise concerns about precedent: if the government wipes out current student loans, future college students may have an (Q7) ____________________ to take on debts, they argue, hoping they will also be forgiven. Colleges may in turn be inclined to (Q8) ___________________________.In recent weeks, Biden has walked a fine line on the issue, offering support for a bill from House Democrats calling for $10,000 worth of student-loan forgivenessbut stopping short of endorsing anything close to a plan championed by Senators Elizabeth Warren and Chuck Schumer to issue $50,000 per borrower through Executive action.What's clear, according to experts on both sides of the aisle, is that economic crises exacerbate the problem of student debt. The last time the U.S. dipped into a recession, state governments (Q9) _____________________ in colleges and universities - which, in turn, raised their tuition prices and forced students to take on ever larger loans.That's not (Q10) ___________________ in the long run. It remains to be seen if Biden can arrive at a political solution that is.KEY Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Is student-loan forgiveness unforgivable in Congress?Even before taking office, president-elect Joe Biden is already facing (Q1) a political stormamong his ideologically diverse base of supporters over the volatile issue of student-debt forgiveness.Roughly 45 million Americans currently hold $1.6 trillion in (Q2) student debt, with the average student-loan recipient owing between $20,000 and $25,000, according to the Federal Reserve. Among those actively making payments on their debt, the average monthly installment is between $200 and $300. And with 5.3 million more people unemployed than in February, right before the U.S. fell into a pandemic-induced (Q3) recession, progressives say that student-debt forgiveness could be a boon for the economy."Student-debt cancellation feels like one of the most accessible Executive actions to stimulate the economy at the moment," says Suzanne Kahn, director of the Education, Jobs and Worker Power program and the Great Democracy Initiative at the liberal Roosevelt Institute.Kahn and others say the move would also help (Q4)close the wealth gapbetween white Americans and people of color. Some 90% of Black students and 72% of Latino students take out loans for college vs. just 66% of white students, according to a 2016 analysis from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.But the more moderate faction of Biden's base argues that sweeping student-loan forgiveness doesn't help the people who (Q5)need aid most. Americans with college degrees, as a whole, have been less devastated by the economic effects of COVID-19 than their noncollege-educated counterparts. A September report from Pew Research Center found that only 12% of people with college degreeswere having trouble paying bills as a result of the pandemic, compared with 34% of Americans with (Q6) a high school diplomaor less.Others raise concerns about precedent: if the government wipes out current student loans, future college students may have an (Q7) incentiveto take on debts, they argue, hoping they will also be forgiven. Colleges may in turn be inclined to (Q8) raise their prices further.In recent weeks, Biden has walked a fine line on the issue, offering support for a bill from House Democrats calling for $10,000 worth of student-loan forgivenessbut stopping short of endorsing anything close to a plan championed by Senators Elizabeth Warren and Chuck Schumer to issue $50,000 per borrower through Executive action.What's clear, according to experts on both sides of the aisle, is that economic crises exacerbate the problem of student debt. The last time the U.S. dipped into a recession, state governments (Q9)cut their investmentsin colleges and universities - which, in turn, raised their tuition pricesand forced students to take on ever larger loans.That's not (Q10)sustainablein the long run. It remains to be seen if Biden can arrive at a political solution that is.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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