双语阅读 | 可能让人变“丧”的五个生活习惯:频繁刷手机、饮食习惯差……

可能让人变“丧”的五个生活习惯:频繁刷手机、饮食习惯差……From Constantly Checking Your Phone to a Bad Diet – The 5 Everyday Habits That Could Be Harming Your Mental Health王淑怡 供稿Habits are things we do over and over again and are usually fairly harmless. But there are some that can be bad for our mental health. Vanessa Gebhardt, a psychologist, explained how breaking these harmful habits can help to have a positive effect. Here she highlights the reasons you could be struggling with your mental health.习惯是我们反复会做的事情,通常是没有任何坏处的。但是,有一些习惯可能对我们的心理健康产生影响。心理学家瓦妮莎·格巴德(Vanessa Gebhardt)阐述了改变这些坏习惯将如何带来积极的影响。她提出了可能导致心理健康问题的几点原因:1. Constantly checking your phone1. 经常刷手机A hurtful habit is being glued to our phones and checking them without even thinking about it. This mindless checking promotes the expectation of immediate gratification; in other words, looking for notifications which make us feel good and more connected.随时随地把手机带在身边、下意识地看手机是一种不良习惯。频繁刷手机会导致人们越来越追求即时满足;换句话说,就是不断寻找令我们感觉良好和更有归属感的信息。Research by De Montfort University recently found that checking your phone regularly can make you more distracted and forgetful, and that’s not to mention the negative impact this habit can have on your mental health. “To overcome this, monitor your screen time and be mindful of who you choose to follow, which online conversations or debates you choose to join, and focus on the positive posts, rather than the negative ones.”德蒙福特大学最近的研究发现,频繁看手机会让你更容易分心和健忘,更不用说这个习惯会对你的心理健康造成负面影响。“要克服这一点,你可以监控你的手机屏幕使用时间,谨慎选择关注对象以及加入哪些在线对话或讨论,多关注积极的帖子,而不是消极的帖子。”2. Being inside all day2. 整天待在家The coronavirus pandemic has been tough on many people as being inside all day can be difficult. Spending the majority of your day indoors can significantly increase your risk for depression, with lack of sunlight and vitamin D contributing to depressive symptoms.新冠疫情让人们不得不整天呆在家里,这对于许多人来说都非常煎熬。每天大部分时间呆在室内,会导致罹患抑郁症的风险明显增加,因为不晒太阳和缺乏维生素D会导致抑郁症状。Heading outside for a short walk can help and if you are still working from home simulating your commute to work is a great way to ensure you get out and about during the day. Simply grab a coffee and take a walk round the block before entering your ‘home office’; the natural light, change of scenery and exercise can boost your mental health, improve your mood, and increase your ability to concentrate.出去散散步可能会有所帮助;如果你仍然在家办工,假装上下班通勤也是一个能让你出门走走的好办法。在进入“家庭办公室”之前,你只需拿起咖啡,在街区里走一圈;自然光、不同的景致和体育锻炼都有益于你的心理健康,改善情绪,帮助你集中注意力。3. Sleeping too little3. 缺乏睡眠A lack of sleep can leave us feeling a little ropey, and this is because sleep deprivation leads to low mood, difficulty in concentrating, irritability, and getting more easily overwhelmed, which can negatively impact your mental health. Just one week of disturbed or poor sleep can increase stress levels, anger, and feelings of sadness, and it is a vicious cycle, with each of these factors making it more difficult to fall and stay asleep.缺乏睡眠会让我们状态很差,这是因为睡眠不足会导致情绪低落、注意力难以集中、易怒和容易崩溃,这会对你的心理健康产生负面影响。仅仅一周的低质量睡眠就会增加压力、愤怒和悲伤的情绪,这是一个恶性循环,每个因素都会使入睡和保持睡眠更加困难。If you have trouble sleeping, use techniques to relax and unwind before bed will help you to develop a sleep routine that works for you, helping you to feel energized and more positive during your waking hours.如果你入睡困难,可以在睡前运用一些技巧放松身体,这有助于养成适合自己的睡眠习惯,帮助你在清醒时保持充沛精力和积极情绪。4. Bad diet4. 不良饮食习惯If we’ve been gorging on sweets and chocolate, it can have a negative impact on our mood. High-sugar, processed foods like cakes, bread, and biscuits, as well as red meat can substantially raise the risk for depression and eating these sorts of foods on a regular basis could be one of the reasons your mental health is suffering.长期食用各种甜食和巧克力,可能会让我们的心情变差。蛋糕、面包、饼干等高糖加工食品以及红肉会大大增加罹患抑郁症的风险,经常吃这类食物可能影响你的心理健康。Studies have shown that eating these foods in large quantities, as well as low amounts of fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of depression and mood disorders. To positively impact your mental health, pay close attention to the foods you are fueling your body and mind with, and opt for a diet full of fruits, vegetables, and wholegrains.研究表明,大量食用此类食物,且水果和蔬菜摄入较少,会增加患抑郁症和情绪障碍的风险。要对你的心理健康产生积极影响,就要密切注意你的身心所摄入的食物,选择富含水果、蔬菜和全麦的饮食。5. Lack of exercise5. 缺乏锻炼Exercising is brilliant for reducing stress and the feel-good endorphins released by exercise can be an instant mood-booster. Regular exercise can also help improve your energy levels and motivation, increasing feelings of happiness and reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress.锻炼有助于缓解压力,锻炼时会释放令人愉悦的内啡肽,可以让人心情瞬间变好。经常锻炼也能提高你的体能和动力,增加幸福感,减少抑郁、焦虑和压力。For maximum benefit, try to do at least 30 minutes of exercise three to five times a week. If you are not sure where to start, or are looking to switch up your fitness regime, fitness apps offer workouts which are suitable for any age and fitness level.为了达到最佳效果,可以尝试每次运动至少30分钟,每周运动3到5次。如果你不知道从哪里开始练起,或者想要改变健身计划,各种健身app可以根据你的年龄和体质为你提供合适的健身方案。【VOCABULARY】1.glue v. 使全神贯注2.immediate gratification 即时满足3.coronavirus n. 冠状病毒4.ropey adj. (非正式)不舒服的 ;破旧的,劣质的5.vicious adj. 恶毒的;恶意的;堕落的;有错误的6.unwind v. 放松7.gorge v. 贪婪地吃;狼吞虎咽8.wholegrains n. 全谷物;全麦9.endorphin n. [生化] 内啡肽(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 为什么你和镜子里的自己看上去不一样?

Why Do You Look Different In A Mirror?为什么你和镜子里的自己看上去不一样?王淑怡 供稿Usually the greatest fear after a wild night of partying isn't what you said that you might regret, but how you'll look in your friends' photos. If you left home looking like a 10, those awkward group selfies make you feel more like a 5, prompting you to wonder, "Why do I look different in pictures?" It's a weird phenomenon that is making people question their own mirrors. Are pictures the "real" you or is it your reflection? Have mirrors been lying to us this whole time?通常,一夜的狂欢派对过后最令你恐惧的不是你说了什么可能会让你后悔的事情,而是你在朋友拍的照片中长什么样子。如果你离开家时的样子是10分,那么,那些令人尴尬的自拍合照让你觉得自己只有5分,你不禁思考,“为什么我在照片中看起来不一样?”这是一个奇怪的现象,它让人们对自己的镜子产生了怀疑。照片和镜像,哪一个才是“真实”的你?镜子一直在对我们撒谎吗?The answer to that is a bit tricky. The good news is that there's a big chance that Quasimodo-looking creature that stares back at you in your selfies isn't an accurate depiction of the real you. But your mirror isn't completely truthful either.问题的答案可能有点绕。好消息是,在你的自拍中长得像卡西莫多的那个人有很大概率不是你最真实的样子。然而,你在镜子里看到的也不完全是真实的自己。The mirror is a reflection. It's not the real you.镜子里的只是你的映像,并不是真实的你Although we're the most comfortable and familiar with the face staring back at us while we brush our teeth in the morning, the mirror isn't really the real us. It's a reflection, so it shows how we look like in reverse. Because we're so used to seeing the reverse version of ourselves, seeing how we look in pictures can be jarring. And unless you're blessed with a perfectly symmetrical face, the photo version of yourself can be even more wonky.在我们早上刷牙时,镜子里的脸是我们最为舒服、熟悉的,但这不是我们真实的样子。它只是一个映像,呈现的是我们翻转过来的样貌。因为我们早已习惯了镜子中翻转的自己,所以看到照片难免会觉得令人不快。除非你有幸长了一张完美对称的脸,否则照片里的形象还要更加靠不住。“We see ourselves in the mirror all the time—you brush your teeth, you shave, you put on makeup,” Pamela Rutledge, director of the Media Psychology Center, told The Atlantic. “Looking at yourself in the mirror becomes a firm impression. You have that familiarity. Familiarity breeds liking. You’ve established a preference for that look of your face.”媒体心理中心主任帕梅拉·拉特利奇在接受《大西洋月刊》采访时说:“我们总是通过镜子看自己——刷牙、刮胡子和化妆的时候都是。你已经把镜子里的模样已铭刻在心,非常熟悉了。熟悉就会带来喜爱。你已经对这副样貌产生了偏好。”Scientists call this the "mere-exposure" effect. Basically, it's a behavior concocted by psychologist Robert Zajonc that says people react favorably to things they're most familiar with. So, when you see a flipped version of yourself, you immediately hate it or even find it grotesque because it's the opposite of what you're used to.科学家将这种现象称为“曝光效应”。简单来说,这是由心理学家罗伯特·扎荣茨提出的一种行为,即人们会对自己最为熟悉的事物产生好感。因此,当你看到翻转过来的自己时,你会立即产生厌恶心理,甚至觉得它很怪异,因为它与你所习惯的样子截然相反。The camera lens also plays a part.相机的镜头也在作祟So if your reflection isn't the real you, does that mean your ugly selfies are your "true self"? Although mirrors show a flipped version of yourself, the myth that "pictures never lie" isn't completely true either. After all, most people take more than one selfie before they find their most flattering one, and usually it takes a combination of angles and lighting before landing one Instagram-worthy.那么,如果镜像并非真实的你,这是否意味着不好看的自拍才展现了“真实的自己”?虽然镜子呈现的是我们翻转过来的样子,但“照片从不说谎”的神话也不完全属实。毕竟,大多数人自拍的时候不会只拍一张,然后会结合拍摄角度和灯光挑出一张最动人、最符合Instagram审美的再上传。But the problem might not be your angles, it could be lens distortion. Because of the proximity of your face to the camera, the lens can distort certain features, making them look larger than they are in real life. Depending on your features, if you have a soft, round face, photos can flatten your features and further distort the "real" you.但问题可能不在于你的拍摄角度,而在于镜头畸变。由于你的脸离相机很近,镜头会扭曲某些特征,使它们看起来比现实中的更大。根据你的脸部特征,如果你的脸庞柔和圆润,照片会弱化你的特点,进一步扭曲“真实”的你。Your smile could also be the culprit.你的笑容也是一个原因Everyone knows what it's like to pose for an awkward photo, like a driver's license or a passport. The photos never turn out looking nice, and they hardly look like our natural smiles. When you're looking at yourself in the mirror, you're relaxed, confident, and more likely to smile and act naturally. If someone shouting "Say cheese!" at you, maybe you're going to tense up and have a photo that looks different and foreign from the version you see in the mirror. It's best to relax when taking pictures and try to focus on something else. That tense, forced awkwardness will always translate to a bad photo.我们都知道,摆拍一张尴尬的照片是怎样的,比如驾驶执照或护照。这些照片都不好看,而且笑容也很不自然。当你照镜子时,你会相对放松和自信,笑容、举止也会更自然一点。如果有人对你喊“茄子!”,你可能就会紧张起来,拍出的照片与你在镜子里看到的自己截然不同,让你感到陌生。因此,拍照时最好能够放松,把注意力转移到其他事情上。紧张、被迫的尴尬表情往往会变成一张糟糕的照片。【VOCABULARY】1.Quasimodo n. 卡西莫多(维克多·雨果的小说《巴黎圣母院》中的驼背人的名字)2.jarring adj. 令人不快的3.symmetrical adj. 对称的4.wonky adj. 不稳的,歪斜的;靠不住的5.concoct v. 虚构,杜撰,编造(故事、借口等)6.lens distortion 光学变形;透镜畸变7.culprit n. 引起问题的事物(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 减肥是否应该不吃晚饭?

Should You Skip Dinner to Lose Weight?减肥是否应该不吃晚饭?王淑怡 供稿There's an old saying about healthy eating: “Breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and supper like a pauper.” In other words,front-loadmore calories in the early part of the day. But does that mean you should be skipping dinner if you want to lose weight?The short answer: Not necessarily.关于健康饮食有一句老话,“早餐吃得像国王,午餐吃得像王子,晚餐吃得像乞丐”。也就是说,你可以在早上摄入更多的卡路里。但是,这是否意味着如果你想减肥,就应该不吃晚餐?答案是,未必如此。In a January 2021 Nutrientsstudy, researchers found that college-aged students who regularly skipped dinner gained more weight than their counterparts who — for the most part — ate dinner daily. Dinner-skippers gained about 10 percent of their body weight over the six-year study period and were also more likely to be in the overweight/obese category (BMI≥25kg/m2). These findings were consistent in both people assigned male at birth and people assigned female at birth.2021年1月,在《营养素》(Nutrients)的一项研究中,研究人员发现,在大多数情况下,经常不吃晚餐的大学生比每天吃晚餐的大学生体重增加得更多。在六年的研究期间,不吃晚餐的人体重大约增加了10%,而且更有可能属于超重或肥胖人群(体重指数≥25kg/m2),以上结果对于男女来说均是如此。“People who skip dinner still eat throughout the evening, they just tend to eat more snack-like foods, which is what would lead to weight gain,” saysa researcher,“From my experience, [dinner-skippers] most likely load up on snacks that tend to lack nutrition, are low in fiber and protein, and high in sugar and carbs. These types of food rarely fill you up butcan lead to eating more.”“不吃晚餐的人晚上仍然会吃东西,他们只是倾向于吃更多零食类的食物,这是导致他们体重增加的原因,”一名研究人员表示,“根据我的经验,[不吃晚餐的人]最可能吃的零食往往缺乏营养,纤维和蛋白质含量低,而糖和碳水化合物含量高。这类食物无法让你吃饱,反而会让你吃得更多。”Still, there's other research that indicates skipping dinner could encourage weight loss. For instance, the research, based on a seven-year dietary analysis of 50,000 adults, found that body weight, measured by body mass index, corresponds with when we eat and how often we eat. Specifically, people who eat larger breakfasts and adopt an 18-hour overnight fast, say from 1 pm to 7 am, have the lowest body weights. Those who ate more than three meals, or three meals plus snacks, had higher BMIs.不过,还有其他的研究证明,不吃晚饭有利于减肥。例如,在对五万名成年人长达七年的饮食分析的基础上,有研究发现体重指数与进食时间和进食频率相关。具体而言,早餐吃得多、18小时(下午1点至早上7点)空腹的人,体重指数最低。一天吃三顿以上,或者三餐加零食,体重指数会更高一些。Skipping dinner seems to work in the above study because participants were essentially intermittent fastingversus forgoing dinner and then having a snackfest later in the evening.“When people implement intermittent fasting, skipping dinner can be a powerful weight-loss tool,” says theresearcher, “this type of fasting is called circadian rhythmfasting and mimicsour traditional eating patterns.The goal is to eat when the sun comes up and finish eating when the sun goes down. Eating in line with your circadian rhythms can make for better weight managementas well as improved sleep, etc.”在上述研究中,不吃晚餐似乎很有效,但这是因为参与者基本是间歇性禁食,而不是不吃晚餐,然后在晚上吃零食。“当人们采用间歇性禁食法时,不吃晚餐可以成为一个强有力的减肥方式,”研究人员表示,“这种类型的禁食被称为昼夜节律禁食,模仿我们的传统饮食习惯,即在太阳升起和落山时进食。按照昼夜节律进食可以帮助你更好地控制体重,改善睡眠等。”Of course, thisintermittent fasting approach isn't for everyone. People who maintain highly active lifestyles, for instance, and need adequate fuel to power morning runs or help muscle fibers recover from intense evening workouts like weightlifting might not benefit. 当然,这种间歇性禁食并不适合所有人。比如,对那些日常生活高度耗能的人来说,这种禁食可能没有益处;他们需要充足的燃料,来为晨跑提供动力、或使肌肉纤维从高强度的夜间锻炼(例如举重)后得到恢复。If you're looking to lose 10 pounds, eating a healthy and light dinner will help your body maintain its functions. Also, dinner is important because after a long day full of activities, your body needs to fuel up. It is unhealthy if you skip your dinner or consume way too much for dinner. So, the key is to maintain balance. 如果你想要减重10磅,吃一顿健康和清淡的晚餐能够帮助你的身体维持各项功能。此外,晚餐十分重要,因为经过一整天的活动,你的身体需要补充能量。如果你不吃晚餐或晚餐吃得太多,都是不健康的,关键是要保持平衡。【VOCABULARY】1.paupern.乞丐;穷人;靠救济度日者2.front-loadv.将(费用、经历等)更多地用于前期3.nutrient n.营养物4.BMI n.体重指数(body mass index的缩写)5.intermittent fasting间歇性禁食;断食疗法6.circadian rhythm[生理] 生理节律;[生理] 近昼夜节律;日周期节律7.mimicsv.模仿(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 香港教师打破女性最快登顶珠峰世界记录

香港教师打破女性最快登顶珠峰世界记录A Hong Kong teacher has broken the world record for the fastest woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest燕山大学 刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is VOA News. Via remote, I'm Marissa Melton. Brazil's President Jair Bolsonaro promised the Yanomami indigenous people in remarks released Sunday that there will be no mining on their land unless they want it. The right-wing president's remarks come amid charges by the Yanomami that their lands are being seized and they themselves are coming under attack from people mining illegally. The government is preparing a law to regulate mining on lands assigned to indigenous peoples. The Yanomami people have been warning since last year of tense conditions on their vast reserve of 96,000 square kilometers. It's home to some 27,000 indigenous people.Thousands marched in Columbia's capital Bogota on Sunday, waving flags and dressed in white to demand an end to protests and roadblocks as well as express support for security forces following a month of demonstrations. Talks between the government and national protest leaders are to restart on Sunday after stalling last week. Widespread protests began at the end of April in opposition to a now-withdrawn tax reform plan but they have since expanded to call for a basic income, opportunities for young people and to end police violence.Two record-breaking climbers have returned safely from the summit of Mt. Everest where climbing teams have struggled with bad weather and a coronavirus outbreak. Arthur Muir, a retired attorney from Chicago, has become the oldest American to scale the mountain at age 75. Also Tsang Yin-hung, a teacher from Hong Kong, is now the fastest female climber of the world's highest peak. She reached the summit from base camp in 25 hours and 50 minutes. There are only a few days left of good weather on Mt. Everest this year and climbing was closed last year due to the pandemic. Nepal is currently in lockdown battling its worst surged so far of COVID-19. Via remote, I'm Marissa Melton, VOA News.VOCABULARY1. indigenous adj. 本土的;土著的2. roadblocks n. 路障。例如:The city police set up roadblocks to check passing vehicles. 该市警察设置了路障检查过往车辆。3. attorney n. 律师QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is VOA News. Via remote, I'm Marissa Melton. Brazil's President Jair Bolsonaro promised the Yanomami indigenous people in remarks released Sunday that there will be no mining on their land unless they want it. The right-wing president's remarks come amid charges by the Yanomami that their lands are being seized and they themselves are coming under attack from people mining illegally. The government is preparing a law to (Q1) ________________ mining on lands assigned to indigenous peoples. The Yanomami people have been warning since last year of tense conditions on their vast (Q2) __________________ of 96,000 square kilometers. It's home to some 27,000 indigenous people.Thousands marched in Columbia's capital Bogota on Sunday, waving flags and dressed in white to demand an end to (Q3) _________________ and roadblocks as well as express support for security forces following a month of (Q4) ____________________. Talks between the government and national protest leaders are to restart on Sunday after stalling last week. Widespread protests began at the end of April in opposition to a now-withdrawn tax reform plan but they have since expanded to call for a basic income, opportunities for young people and to end (Q5) __________________.Two record-breaking climbers have returned safely from the summit of Mt. Everest where climbing teams have struggled with bad weather and a coronavirus outbreak. Arthur Muir, a retired (Q6) _____________________ from Chicago, has become the oldest American to scale the mountain at age 75. Also Tsang Yin-hung, a (Q7) ___________________ from Hong Kong, is now the fastest (Q8) ____________________ climber of the world's highest peak. She reached the summit from base camp in 25 hours and 50 minutes. There are only a few days left of good weather on Mt. Everest this year and climbing was closed last year due to the (Q9) __________________. Nepal is currently in (Q10) _______________________ battling its worst surged so far of COVID-19. Via remote, I'm Marissa Melton, VOA News.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is VOA News. Via remote, I'm Marissa Melton. Brazil's President Jair Bolsonaro promised the Yanomami indigenous people in remarks released Sunday that there will be no mining on their land unless they want it. The right-wing president's remarks come amid charges by the Yanomami that their lands are being seized and they themselves are coming under attack from people mining illegally. The government is preparing a law to (Q1) regulate mining on lands assigned to indigenous peoples. The Yanomami people have been warning since last year of tense conditions on their vast (Q2) reserve of 96,000 square kilometers. It's home to some 27,000 indigenous people.Thousands marched in Columbia's capital Bogota on Sunday, waving flags and dressed in white to demand an end to (Q3) protests and roadblocks as well as express support for security forces following a month of (Q4) demonstrations. Talks between the government and national protest leaders are to restart on Sunday after stalling last week. Widespread protests began at the end of April in opposition to a now-withdrawn tax reform plan but they have since expanded to call for a basic income, opportunities for young people and to end (Q5) police violence.Two record-breaking climbers have returned safely from the summit of Mt. Everest where climbing teams have struggled with bad weather and a coronavirus outbreak. Arthur Muir, a retired (Q6) attorney from Chicago, has become the oldest American to scale the mountain at age 75. Also Tsang Yin-hung, a (Q7) teacher from Hong Kong, is now the fastest (Q8) female climber of the world's highest peak. She reached the summit from base camp in 25 hours and 50 minutes. There are only a few days left of good weather on Mt. Everest this year and climbing was closed last year due to the (Q9) pandemic. Nepal is currently in (Q10) lockdown battling its worst surged so far of COVID-19. Via remote, I'm Marissa Melton, VOA News.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 美国12岁青少年开始接种疫苗

美国12岁青少年开始接种疫苗U.S. authorized vaccines for use in children as young as 12刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is VOA News. Reporting by remote, I'm Joe Ramsey. British health officials said Friday the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines in Britain has prevented daily 12,000 deaths and more than 30,000 hospitalizations in older people. Britain has given two-thirds of its adult population at least one shot of COVID-19 vaccine, helping Prime Minister Boris Johnson in his efforts to reopen the economy by the summer. The analysis by government agency Public Health England says the estimate accounts only for the direct effects of vaccines and evidence that vaccines help reduce transmission means the numbers of deaths and hospitalizations is likely higher. There have been 127,000 deaths in Britain from COVID-19 - the sixth highest death toll globally, according to a Reuters analysis.More teenagers in the United States began receiving COVID-19 vaccines on Thursday. U.S. regulators authorized Pfizer's vaccines for use in children as young as 12 earlier in the week, the first coronavirus shot to be approved in the United States for ages 12 to 15. Thursday was the first day the shots went into the arms of the age group in some U.S. states. Vaccinating younger ages is considered an important step for getting children back into school safely.Pfizer repeatedly offered to sell its COVID-19 vaccine to Brazil's Health Ministry between August and November last year but got no answer from the government, Pfizer's chief executive for Latin America told lawmakers on Thursday. A Senate commission is investigating whether President Jair Bolsonaro's government mishandled the pandemic by failing to secure vaccines in time to curb a surge that has killed more than 430,000 Brazilians - the worst COVID-19 death toll outside the United States. The letter went unanswered for two months, the parliamentary commission has established. The Brazilian government eventually negotiated with Pfizer for 100 million doses in a contract signed in March, with the first one million doses arriving in late April. I'm Joe Ramsey, VOA News.VOCABULARY1. rollout n. 首次展示2. hospitalization n.住院治疗3. curb v. to control or limit sth., especially sth. bad 控制,抑制QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is VOA News. Reporting by remote, I'm Joe Ramsey. British health officials said Friday the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines in Britain has prevented daily 12,000 deaths and more than 30,000 (Q1) ________________________ in older people. Britain has given two-thirds of its adult population at least one shot of COVID-19 vaccine, helping Prime Minister Boris Johnson in his efforts to (Q2) _________________________ by the summer. The analysis by government agency Public Health England says the estimate accounts only for the direct effects of vaccines and evidence that vaccines help (Q3) _________________________________ means the numbers of deaths and hospitalizations is likely higher. There have been 127,000 deaths in Britain from COVID-19 - the sixth highest death toll globally, according to a Reuters analysis.More teenagers in the United States began receiving COVID-19 vaccines on Thursday. U.S. regulators authorized Pfizer's vaccines for use in (Q4) ___________________ as young as 12 earlier in the week, the first coronavirus shot to be approved in the United States for ages 12 to 15. Thursday was the first day the shots went into the arms of the age group in some U.S. states. (Q5) __________ younger ages is considered an important step for getting children back into school safely.Pfizer repeatedly offered to (Q6) _______________ its COVID-19 vaccine to Brazil's Health Ministry between August and November last year but got no answer from the government, Pfizer's chief (Q7) __________________ for Latin America told (Q8) ________________ on Thursday. A Senate commission is investigating whether President Jair Bolsonaro's government mishandled the pandemic by failing to (Q9) _______________ vaccines in time to curb a surge that has killed more than 430,000 Brazilians - the worst COVID-19 death toll outside the United States. The letter went unanswered for two months, the parliamentary commission has established. The Brazilian government eventually negotiated with Pfizer for 100 million doses in a (Q10) _____________ signed in March, with the first one million doses arriving in late April. I'm Joe Ramsey, VOA News.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is VOA News. Reporting by remote, I'm Joe Ramsey. British health officials said Friday the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines in Britain has prevented daily 12,000 deaths and more than 30,000 (Q1) hospitalizations in older people. Britain has given two-thirds of its adult population at least one shot of COVID-19 vaccine, helping Prime Minister Boris Johnson in his efforts to (Q2) reopen the economy by the summer. The analysis by government agency Public Health England says the estimate accounts only for the direct effects of vaccines and evidence that vaccines help (Q3) reduce transmission means the numbers of deaths and hospitalizations is likely higher. There have been 127,000 deaths in Britain from COVID-19 - the sixth highest death toll globally, according to a Reuters analysis.More teenagers in the United States began receiving COVID-19 vaccines on Thursday. U.S. regulators authorized Pfizer's vaccines for use in (Q4) children as young as 12 earlier in the week, the first coronavirus shot to be approved in the United States for ages 12 to 15. Thursday was the first day the shots went into the arms of the age group in some U.S. states. (Q5) Vaccinating younger ages is considered an important step for getting children back into school safely.Pfizer repeatedly offered to (Q6) sell its COVID-19 vaccine to Brazil's Health Ministry between August and November last year but got no answer from the government, Pfizer's chief (Q7) executive for Latin America told (Q8) lawmakers on Thursday. A Senate commission is investigating whether President Jair Bolsonaro's government mishandled the pandemic by failing to (Q9) secure vaccines in time to curb a surge that has killed more than 430,000 Brazilians - the worst COVID-19 death toll outside the United States. The letter went unanswered for two months, the parliamentary commission has established. The Brazilian government eventually negotiated with Pfizer for 100 million doses in a (Q10) contract signed in March, with the first one million doses arriving in late April. I'm Joe Ramsey, VOA News.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

带练习 | 硬化道路有助于减排

Hardening the roads helps to save energy硬化道路有助于减排刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more energy than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow indentation or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a sustainability scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply hardening the nation's roads and highways.And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those emissions savings into context - that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could mix small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual hurdles."You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also driver behavior, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our pavements. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our streets and highways - those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.VOCABULARY1. stride v. to walk with long steps in a particular direction 大步走;阔步行走。例如:She camestriding along to meet me. 她大步走上前来迎接我。2. sidewalk n.人行道3. indentation n. a cut or mark on the edge or surface of sth. 缺口;凹陷;凹痕。例如:The horse'shooves left deep indentations in the mud. 马蹄在泥地里留下了深深的蹄印。4. deflection n.(尤指击中某物后)突然转向,偏斜,偏离。例如:the angle of deflection偏斜度5. pavement n. (North American English) the surface of a road 路面。例如:Two cars skidded on the icy pavement. 两辆汽车在结冰的路面上打滑。6. stiffen v.(使)变硬7. offset v. 抵消;弥补;补偿8. nanotubes 纳米管9. asphalt n. 沥青;柏油10. retrofit v. 给机器设备装配(新部件);翻新;改型QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more (Q1) __________________ than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow (Q2) __________________ or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a (Q3) ________________________ scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply (Q4) ______________ the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those (Q5) _________________________________into context—that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could (Q6) _________________ small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual (Q7) __________________. "You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also (Q8) _________________, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our (Q9) ________________________. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our (Q10) __________________________________—those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more (Q1) energy than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow (Q2)indentation or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a (Q3) sustainability scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply (Q4) hardening the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those (Q5) emissions savings into context - that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could (Q6) mix small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual (Q7)hurdles."You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also (Q8) driver behavior, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our (Q9) pavements. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our (Q10) streets and highways—those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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