小满天逐热,温风沐麦圆

小满是夏季第二个节气,紧随立夏之后。



Xiaoman, or Small Grain, is the second solar term for summer after Lixia, or Summer Begins, when wheat starts to growin north China. Xiaoman usually occurs on May 20-22 when the sun's elliptical longitude reaches 60° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 75°. This yearit falls on May 21.
小满是夏季第二个节气,紧随立夏之后。此时,北方的小麦开始逐渐成熟。小满节气通常在每年的5月20日至22日之间,太阳到达黄经60度时便进入小满节气,在越过75度时便告结束。今年的小满是5月21日。
 
A Chinese proverb describes the days after Xiaoman as the “three periods of waitings” — waiting for sow thistle to prosper, waiting for fine grass in strong sunshine, and waiting for wheat to mature.
中国古代有一句谚语概括了小满时节的“三候”,分别是“第一候苦菜秀,第二候靡草死,第三候麦秋至”,说的是小麦未熟民众只能以苦菜饱腹,喜阴的靡草逐渐衰败而绿草开始繁茂,以及麦子逐渐成熟,虽是夏季,却进入了它成熟的“秋”。
 
There was a tradition of eating seasonal wild vegetables including sow thistle during Xiaoman when crops are yet to mature. Though it may sound like a helpless choice, the tradition actually benefits people as the wild vegetables contain rich vitamins and mineral substance.
由于小满时节庄稼尚未完全成熟,因此民间有着吃时令野菜的传统,其中包括苦菜。尽管这听起来像是个无奈之选,但事实上苦菜的维生素和矿物质含量丰富,有利于身体健康。



The arrival of Xiaoman also marks the important period for transplanting rice seedlings, harvesting the rapeseeds,and taking care of the silkworms about to cocoon in south China.
小满的到来在农耕社会中还有很多指示意义——此时的水稻要开始移栽了,田间的油菜籽可以收获了,在南方,家蚕开始织茧,养蚕人进入了一年中最忙碌的时分。


The Amazing Cultural Heritage of Solar Terms

非物质文化遗产——二十四节气

A solar term is any of 24 points in traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon. The points are spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic and are used by lunisolar calendars to stay synchronized with the seasons, which is crucial for agrarian societies. The solar terms are also used to calculate intercalary months in East Asian calendars; which month is repeated depends on the position of the sun at the time.
节气指的是东亚地区传统阴阳历中的24个特定节令,二十四节气与特定的天体活动相对应,代表某些自然现象。每个节气的划分分别相应于地球在黄道上每运动15°所到达的一定位置,并与其所属的季节时分相对应,对农耕社会的运作有着关键的指示意义。二十四节气在东亚流行的农历中还可以用来计算闰月。


Solar terms originated in China, then spread to Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, countries in the East Asian cultural sphere. Although each term was named based on the seasonal changes of climate in North China Plain, peoples living in the different climates still use it with no changes. On December 1, 2016, 24 solar terms were listed as UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage.
二十四节气起源于中国,随后传至韩国、越南、日本等东亚文化圈内各国。尽管节气对应的气候特征是依据华北平原而制定的,但是不同地区的人们在参考节气时仍然沿用统一的名称。在2016年12月1日,联合国教科文组织正式将二十四节气列入非物质文化遗产名录。



Vocabulary

sow thistle: 苦苣菜
seedling: n. 秧苗
rapeseed: n. 油菜籽
lunisolar calendar: 阴阳历
agrarian: adj. 农业的































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