台风季来临

今年第八号台风“玛利亚”已于7月11日在福建省登陆。



The eighth typhoon of this year, Maria, hit Fujian province on July 11th. For Southerners at the coastal area, this is just the start of the typhoon season. However, whether you are a Southerner or a Northerner, how much do you know about typhoon, and could you tell the difference between a hurricane and a typhoon?

今年第八号台风“玛利亚”已于7月11日在福建省登陆。对于居住在沿海地区的南方人来说,今年的台风季才刚刚开始。然而,无论你是一名北方人还是南方人,对于台风你究竟知道多少呢?飓风和台风,你又能分的清楚么?


01

Hurricanes and typhoons are the same weather phenomenon: tropical cyclones. A tropical cyclone is a generic term used by meteorologists to describe a rotating, organized system of clouds and thunderstorms that originates over tropical or subtropical waters and has closed low-level circulation.

飓风和台风其实是同一种天气现象:热带气旋。气象学家对于“热带气旋”一词的定义是,发生在热带、亚热带地区海面上的气旋性环流,具有结构紧密,近地的特点。



The weakest tropical cyclones are called tropical depressions. If a depression intensifies such that its maximum sustained winds reach 62 km per hour, the tropical cyclone becomes a tropical storm. Once a tropical cyclone reaches maximum sustained winds of 119 km per hour or higher, it is then classified as a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone, depending upon where the storm originates in the world. In the North Atlantic, central North Pacific, and eastern North Pacific, the term hurricane is used. The same type of disturbance in the Northwest Pacific is called a typhoon. Meanwhile, in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean, the generic term tropical cyclone is used, regardless of the strength of the wind associated with the weather system.

热带气旋中强度最弱的被称为热带低压,如果它的强度加强,最高持续风速达到了62千米/时,便升级为热带风暴;若是达到119千米/时以上,根据不同的活动地区,可分为飓风、台风或热带气旋三种类别。在北大西洋,北太平洋中部和西部地区,被称为飓风;同样的风暴在太平洋西北部则被称为台风;而在南太平洋和印度洋地区,无论气旋的大小和强度是多少,都被称为“热带气旋”。


02

The ingredients for tropical cyclones include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds. If the right conditions persist long enough, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods we associate with this phenomenon. At times, when a weather system does not meet all of these conditions, but is forecast to bring tropical storm or hurricane force winds to land in the next day or two, it is called a potential tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin and the central and eastern North Pacific basins.

热带气旋的构成要素包括现有的气象扰动,温暖的热带洋面,潮湿的空气和相对静稳的大气。如果这些适宜气旋生成的条件持续维持,那么气旋就会生成并不断加强,最终以狂风巨浪,倾盆大雨的面貌示人。有时,热带气旋即便没有成型,但预计也会给陆地带来了大风大雨,那么在大西洋和东北太平洋区域被称为是潜在的热带气旋。




In the Northern Hemisphere, both hurricane season and typhoon season officially run from June 1 to November 30. Ninety-seven percent of tropical cyclone activity occurs during this time period. However, there is nothing magical about these dates. Hurricanes and typhoons can and do occur outside of this six month period.

在北半球,飓风季和台风季大致都从6月1日开始,到11月30日结束。大约97%的热带气旋都会在这段时间内生成并活动。然而,除了这六个月之外,飓风和台风仍然会生成并登陆。



03

In terms of name sources, typhoons and hurricanes differ in some ways. The list of typhoon names consists of entries from 17 Southeast and East Asian nations and the United States who have territories directly affected by typhoons. The submitted names are arranged into five lists, and each list is cycled with each year. Unlike tropical cyclones in other parts of the world, typhoons are not named after people. Instead, they generally refer to animals, flowers, astrological signs, and a few personal names.

就命名来说,飓风和台风的命名规则不尽相同。台风的命名由来自东南亚和东亚,以及部分领土也受到台风影响的美国等17个国家和地区共同确定。各地提交的台风命名被分为五张表,然后按顺序年复一年地循环重复使用。世界其它地区的热带气旋通常是以人名命名的,而台风的命名则充满了好的寓意,根据动物,花卉,气候现象和少量的人名进行命名。


VOCABULARY


cyclone: n. 气旋

generic: adj. 一类的;一般的

meteorologist: n. 气象学家

torrential: n. 汹涌的;猛烈的

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